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Original Article
Vandana V Shiralkar, Pratap E Jagtap, Gajanan J Belwalkar, Nitin S Nagane, Sushama P Dhonde

Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting Blood Glucose Level in Healthy Adults

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:18-21][No of Hits : 1037]


ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to know the effects of steam sauna bath on fasting blood glucose levels (FBGLs). A total of 80 subjects, 40 males and 40 females, in the age group of 30 to 50 years were subjected to seven steam baths on alternate days. The temperature of the steam sauna was maintained at 50°C and each bath was taken for 15 minutes.

Blood for FBGL was taken before the first steam bath and blood was taken again after seven steam sauna baths and the FBGL was estimated. The FBGLs after seven steam sauna baths were significantly decreased as compared with presteam sauna FBGLs. Steam saunas may help in preventing hyperglycemia and hence diabetes mellitus. It is also beneficial for healthy, asymptomatic subjects.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Fasting blood glucose level, Hyperthermia, Insulin sensitivity, Steam sauna bath.

How to cite this article: Shiralkar VV, Jagtap PE, Belwalkar GJ, Nagane NS, Dhonde SP. Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting Blood Glucose Level in Healthy Adults. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):18-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Rajini Samuel

A Graphical Tool for Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation using Standard Bicarbonate and Base Excess

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:85-89][No of Hits : 825]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis plays an important role in the treatment of intensive care patients, especially for critically ill patients but are often difficult to understand, interpret, and sometimes confusing if both the metabolic and respiratory disturbances are found. There are only few graphical tools available depicting the respiratory and metabolic acid-base disturbances but are rarely used in clinical setting.

Aim: The aim of the current research study is to develop a newer graphical tool for ABG interpretation.

Materials and methods: A total of 120 arterial blood samples were collected and analyzed using ABG analyzer. The ABG parameters like pH, pCO2, HCO3, and standard HCO3 values were noted. Standard base excess was calculated from the obtained data. Arterial blood gas interpretation was done and all the 120 samples were classified into various acid-base disorders. The difference in value between bicarbonate and standard bicarbonate (HCO3 - standard HCO3) was calculated. Carbonic acid was derived from pCO2 values and the ratio (HCO3 - standard HCO3)/H2CO3 was found. The relationship between pCO2, difference between bicarbonate and standard bicarbonate values, and the ratio (HCO3 - standard HCO3)/H2CO3 were graphically analyzed. A novel four-quadrant graph method was developed using standard base excess in the x-axis and the ratio (HCO3 - standard HCO3)/H2CO3 values in the y-axis.

Results: Each acid-base disorders will occupy any of the four quadrants and the normal cases with no acid-base disturbances will be seen around the center of the graph.

Conclusion: This newer graphical tool may help in easier and quicker interpretation of ABG reports compared with the other existing graphical tools.

Clinical significance: This simple four-quadrant graph method may provide a rough guide for ABG interpretation, which, when applied at the appropriate time, results in timely management.

Keywords: Graphical tool, Standard base excess, Standard bicarbonate.

How to cite this article: Samuel R. A Graphical Tool for Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation using Standard Bicarbonate and Base Excess. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):85-89.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Vidhya Vishwanathan, Subramanian Sethuraman, Shanthi Balaji, VS Kalai Selvi, AJ Manjula Devi

Thyroid Dysfunction and Its Influence in Growth Velocity in Children with Down Syndrome: A Retrospective Study.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:6-9][No of Hits : 780]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the common chromosomal anomaly which has various endocrinological abnormalities, of which thyroid dysfunction is very common. When Down syndrome and thyroid dysfunction are present together, it leads to amplification of the clinical problem.

Aims and objectives: With this background, it was aimed to study the incidence of thyroid dysfunction in Down syndrome in pediatric (<12 years) age group and measure the growth velocity before and after initiation of treatment.

Materials and methods: It is a retrospective analysis, which includes 50 children of Indian origin with Down syndrome between the age group of 1 and 12 years from neurodevelopmental clinic (multicentric) who met the phenotypic criteria for establishing the diagnosis of Down syndrome. The thyroid reports and ultrasound reports of thyroid gland for children with hypothyroidism were extrapolated and analyzed. Birth history, age of diagnosis of thyroid disorder, initiation of treatment, normalization of thyroid function, and anthropometric measurements before and 1 year after initiation of treatment were noted.

Results: In this study, thyroid disorder (hypothyroidism) was found in 12 (24%) children, of which 7 (14%) were diagnosed at the age group of 0 to 1 year and 5 (10%) were diagnosed at the age of 1 to 12 years. The mean height in percentile was 9.92 ± 5.63 before and 43.75 ± 12.68 after supplementation of these children with L-thyroxine. None of the children had hyperthyroidism (p = 0.0001).

Conclusion: As mental and physical retardation are common denominators in both Down syndrome and hypothyroidism, coexistence of both the conditions would lead to further developmental delay in terms of mental as well as physical health. Annual screening of thyroid function should be employed in these children to diagnose the problem at the earliest and initiate treatment, thereby improving the quality of life.

Keywords: Down syndrome, Endocrinology, Growth velocity, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid disorder.

How to cite this article: Vishwanathan V, Sethuraman S, Balaji S, Selvi VSK, Devi AJM. Thyroid Dysfunction and Its Influence in Growth Velocity in Children with Down Syndrome: A Retrospective Study. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):6-9.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Satish Ramanathan, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Smitha Menon, Thirumalai Nallathambi, Micheal Sunny

Interpretation of External Quality Assurance: How to and How Not to

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:1-5][No of Hits : 550]


ABSTRACT

Precision and accuracy are the two pillars of quality in analytical testing process of a clinical laboratory. External quality assurance (EQA) holds a major share in shaping the analytical quality from accuracy perspective. But this depends on how laboratory perceives an EQA, understands it, and uses it effectively for inaccuracy assessment. External quality assurance has its own advantages and limitations, including the commutability of EQA sample, traceability of methods of comparison, the statistical procedure used for evaluation, etc. Our study discusses three brief case reports through which we have tried to explore the advantages and limitations of EQA.

Keywords: Clinical biochemistry, External quality assurance, Quality control, Traceability, Trouble shooting.

How to cite this article: Ramanathan S, Chakravarthy S, Menon S, Nallathambi T, Sunny M. Interpretation of External Quality Assurance: How to and How Not to. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
S Vinod Babu, Anusha R Jagadeesan, Jothimalar Ramalingam

A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile in Obese and Nonobese Men attending Master Health Checkup

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:73-75][No of Hits : 1252]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Obesity is emerging as an epidemic worldwide. Obesity is associated with a number of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular abnormalities, anemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and psychosocial abnormalities.

Aim: This study aims at comparing the lipid profile levels of obese and nonobese men.

Materials and methods: This was a case-control study conducted at a tertiary care center. Totally, 80 men in the age group of 20 to 47 years attending the master health checkup were included in the study, out of which 40 men with normal body mass index (BMI) of 18 to 25 belonged to group I and 40 men with increased BMI of 30 and above belonged to group II. Lipid profile parameters, such as triglycerides (TGLs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were estimated in them. The data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0.

Results: Statistically significant difference was found in the total cholesterol levels with a p-value of 0.040 while the difference in LDL cholesterol was statistically highly significant with a p-value of 0.040.

Conclusion: Among lipid profile parameters, only total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol showed significant difference between the obese and nonobese individuals. However, the other parameters like HDL cholesterol and TGLs did not show any significant difference.

Keywords: Body mass index, Lipid profile parameters, Lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, Obese, Total cholesterol.

How to cite this article: Babu SV, Jagadeesan AR, Ramalingam J. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile in Obese and Nonobese Men attending Master Health Checkup. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):73-75.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Bhaskar Shahbabu, Nandita Hazra, Sarvinder Singh

Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:25-29][No of Hits : 1062]


ABSTRACT

Aim: Thyroid disorders are one of the most common endocrine diseases in India. Thyroid disorders are more common in women than in men and contribute to significant morbidity. In this postiodization era, there is paucity of pan-Indian data of thyroid disorder status among adult nonpregnant women. This study was done to analyze the thyroid hormone levels in women of Jharkhand region, which is traditionally known to be an iodine-deficient area.

Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nonpregnant adult females in Ranchi area who were consuming iodized salt formed part of the study group. Clinical evaluation was done by a gynecologist pertaining to thyroid illness. Thyroid function tests encompassing triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroidstimulating hormone were carried out by quantitative enzyme immunoassay method. Thyroid status of the population was defined as per kit reference range.

Results: Subjects with age range 20 to 67 years were divided into three groups as per clinical status of thyroid disorder, viz. total, disease free, and control. A total of 19.6% had biochemical evidence of thyroid disorder and 82.4% were euthyroid as per reference ranges in kit literature. Out of hypothyroid subjects, 3.2% had clinical and 14.4% had subclinical hypothyroidism. In the study group, no subjects were detected to have overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism. Multiple comparison analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0, a statistical software package.

Discussion: This is the first study in Jharkhand area on nonpregnant adult female population that are getting iodine sufficient foods in an iodine-deficient region. The study showed high prevalence of thyroid disorders in the study group. Hypothyroidism, predominantly subclinical hypothyroidism, is prevalent among women in this region.

Keywords: Iodine sufficient, Nonpregnant adult female, Subclinical hypothyroidism, Thyroid disorders.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Shahbabu B, Hazra N, Singh S. Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):25-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Sunita M Aghade, Jayshree S Bavikar

Comparative Study of Serum Calcium in Preeclampsia and Normal Pregnancy at Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad City, India

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:147-150][No of Hits : 1046]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific disorder, is a global health problem. The major mineral calcium has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The present study was aimed to compare the level of serum calcium in normal pregnant women and in preeclampsia and determine the association of serum calcium with severity of the disease.

Study design: This study included 60 pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia as cases and 60 healthy pregnant women as controls in the third trimester of gestation. The concentration of total serum calcium was measured in both groups.

Results: Serum calcium level was significantly decreased in preeclamptic women than in normal pregnant women. Serum calcium showed significant negative correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Conclusion: Hypocalcemia found in preeclamptic women in our study suggests that serum calcium may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Routine estimation of serum calcium may be useful as a diagnostic marker in preeclampsia.

Keywords: Hypocalcemia, Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, Serum calcium.

How to cite this article: Aghade SM, Bavikar JS. Comparative Study of Serum Calcium in Preeclampsia and Normal Pregnancy at Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad City, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):147-150.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Thuthi Mohan, B Vinodh Kumar

Comparison of measured Serum Total Carbon Dioxide with calculated Bicarbonate calculated from Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:76-80][No of Hits : 942]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Calculated bicarbonate from venous sample and measured total carbon dioxide (TCO2) from arterial blood gas (ABG) have shown good agreement in some studies, while conflicting results have been obtained in few other studies. The objective of this study is to compare and assess the degree of agreement between the measured TCO2 and calculated bicarbonate and also whether they can be used interchangeably in our laboratory.

Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 89 ABG samples requested for calculated bicarbonate and then measured TCO2 from venous blood samples drawn simultaneously from the same participants between November 2016 and April 2017.

Results: Measured TCO2 results ranged from 5.7 to 39.9 mmol/L (mean 23.45 mmol/L), while calculated bicarbonate ranged from 9 to 40 mmol/L (mean 24.36 mmol/L). The values of TCO2 and bicarbonate correlated well (r = 0.95, p < 0.001), with the correlation given by the equation, y = 0.884x + 3.605. The bias obtained was -0.9 mmol/L and the standard deviation (SD) was 1.62 mmol/L. The limits of agreement (LOA) were -4.1 to 2.3 mmol/L, with a span of 6.4 mmol/L. Out of the 89 values, 85 (95.05%) were within the LOA.

Conclusion: In majority of the cases, the calculated bicarbonate concentration from ABG showed a good correlation to the measured venous TCO2 concentration. Despite this excellent correlation, TCO2 did not show good agreement with calculated bicarbonate when Story and Poustie’s criteria were applied, especially in cases of bicarbonate less than 20 mmol/L. Hence, clinicians should be aware of this discrepancy and be cautious when using measured TCO2 and calculated bicarbonate interchangeably in the assessment and management of acid-base disorders, especially in patients with metabolic acidosis.

Keywords: Arterial blood gas, Bicarbonate, Henderson- Hasselbalch equation, Metabolic acidosis, Total carbon dioxide.

How to cite this article: Mohan T, Kumar BV. Comparison of measured Serum Total Carbon Dioxide with calculated Bicarbonate calculated from Arterial Blood Gas Analysis. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):76-80.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Jayesh Warade

Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:1-4][No of Hits : 863]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Jaundice is the visible manifestation of chemical bilirubinemia and is characterized by yellow discoloration of skin. In a pediatric emergency department, evaluation of jaundice includes a precise medical history, physical examination, and estimation of bilirubin by laboratory tests. Measurement of total serum bilirubin (TSB) by transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is interpreted according to the age (in hours) of the newborn infant. Studies have also indicated that the TcB determination is more accurate than visual estimation methods.

Aim: To compare BiliCare System against standard laboratory testing for bilirubin estimation.

Results: The coefficient of correlation was r = 0.7245, and the standard deviation between the mean values of TcB and TSB is ±0.55.

Conclusion: It is concluded from the study that there is good correlation between TcB measurement and laboratory estimation of total bilirubin levels. It is recommended that transcutaneous measurement can be used for initial screening of jaundice as well as monitoring of phototherapy in neonates.

Keywords: BiliCare, Bilirubin, Jaundice, Kernicterus, Transcutaneous.

How to cite this article: Warade J. Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Mamta Gupta, Arijit Debnath, Sanjay Jain, Vandana Saini, Somosri Ray

Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:42-48][No of Hits : 859]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D in pregnancy has been reported to cause various maternal effects, i.e., hypocalcemia, subclinical myopathy, increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), cesarean sections, and fetal effects, i.e., neonatal tetany, hyperbilirubinemia congenital rickets, infantile rickets, etc. Only few Indian studies are available in this regard.

Objective: To estimate serum vitamin D levels in pregnant women, cord blood, and study fetomaternal outcomes.

Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 54 consecutive pregnant women and their newborn babies. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was estimated in all women at the time of admission in labor ward. They were followed up to delivery and 48 hours postpartum. Vitamin D was also estimated in cord blood collected during delivery. All results were recorded and analyzed statistically.

Results: The mean 25(OH)D level in pregnancy was 6.81 ± 7.38 ng/mL. The mean 25(OH)D level in their babies (cord blood) was 6.34 ± 7.05 ng/mL. There was very strong positive correlation between maternal and fetal serum 25(OH)D levels (p-value 0.001, r-value 0.9). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with obesity, PE, and GDM (p-value 0.001). Neonatal jaundice and tetany were also significantly associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.

Conclusion: Low levels of vitamin D have been observed in pregnant women and their newborn babies. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse fetomaternal outcomes. As there is a strong correlation of maternal and neonatal levels, supplementing vitamin D in a pregnant women might improve these adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: Cord blood vitamin D, Fetomaternal outcome, Hypovitaminosis D, Vitamin D status in pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Gupta M, Debnath A, Jain S, Saini V, Ray S. Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):42-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sandip S Sendhav, Amit Kakaiya, Bijoya Chatterjee

Evaluation of Serum Magnesium Level along with Lipid Profile in a Gujarati Population diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:112-116][No of Hits : 799]


ABSTRACT

Aims and objectives: Diabetes is a common endocrinal disorder. Abnormal lipid and magnesium levels are observed in diabetes in many studies. The current study was done with an aim to find the relationship between lipid with magnesium and diabetes mellitus in Gujarati population.

Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study included 60 diabetics and 50 healthy subjects. Each subject was interviewed, examined, and investigated for serum lipid profile and magnesium. A 12-hour overnight fasting was recommended. The statistical analysis of data obtained was done by Student’s t-test and calculation of Pearson correlation coefficient.

Result: Routine biochemical investigations showed a significant rise (p < 0.01) of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) in diabetics, in comparison with controls (p < 0.01). Among diabetics, males have significantly higher (p < 0.01) TC, TG, and LDL-C while significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant inverse correlation of magnesium with TC (r = -0.18), TGs (r = -0.14), LDL-C (r = -0.27), fasting blood sugar (FBS; r = -0.12) and direct correlation with HDL-C (r = 026) were observed in cases.

Conclusion: The major highlights of the current study are lower magnesium levels in cases compared with controls. In the current study, serum magnesium level has been found to be inversely related to cholesterol, TG, and LDL-C levels, while it is directly associated with HDL-C level. Hence, it could play a role in controlling the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD)- associated morbidities in future.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Diabetes mellitus, Lipid profile, Magnesium.

How to cite this article: Sendhav SS, Kakaiya A, Chatterjee B. Evaluation of Serum Magnesium Level along with Lipid Profile in a Gujarati Population diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):112-116.

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Devika Tayal, Mrinal Gupta, Binita Goswami

Does Prolonged Storage of Serum Samples alter the Lab Results?

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:30-33][No of Hits : 750]


ABSTRACT

Background: Sample storage for prolonged periods can lead to alterations in routine biochemical parameters.

Aim: This study was undertaken to observe the biochemical changes on serum samples when they are stored for prolonged periods at -20°C on different routine biochemical parameters.

Results: Significant changes were observed in serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and potassium levels after 72 hours of storage, which further deteriorate in 3 months. Rest of the parameters did not show any significant alteration.

Conclusion: Prolonged storage of samples lead to alterations in the analyte concentration in serum. Serum glucose, AST, ALT, creatinine, and potassium levels should be estimated within 72 hours if prolonged storage is unavoidable. In conclusion, all the parameters should be assayed within 24 hours to avoid misinterpretation of results and better patient care.

Keywords: Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Biochemical parameters, Creatinine.

How to cite this article: Tayal D, Gupta M, Goswami B. Does Prolonged Storage of Serum Samples alter the Lab Results? Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):30-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
MEDICAL EDUCATION-ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Vijayetha P Patil, Vidya S Patil, Shrirang P Kulkarni, Dhiraj J Trivedi, Vani C Axita, Rakesh T Muddaraddi, Praveen Kumar Shetty, Anil B Bargale, Pramod S Kamble, Deepti G Ingleshwar, AS Shilpasree

Case-based Learning in Biochemistry: An Innovative Criterion-based Assessment Module for Effective Learning among MBBS Phase 1 Students in India

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:62-68][No of Hits : 694]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The main focus of case-based learning (CBL) is to integrate basic science material with clinical science. Case-based learning may be designed and introduced along with traditional didactic lectures in a way that it creates interest, promotes better understanding, active participation, and selfdirected learning. The student should be motivated to become a life-long learner.

Intervention: We have formulated an innovative criterion-based module for implementation and evaluation of MBBS phase 1 students. This includes framing of a time schedule for distribution of teaching hours based on multiple teaching tools and module for conducting CBL sessions. This will be assessed by evaluation of student performance using a newly developed valid assessment tool.

Materials and methods: For the CBL sessions, 100 students of phase 1 MBBS course were included. They were divided into 10 groups of 10 students each. Ten clinical cases were selected for CBL sessions. Each student was given two cases for discussion. Pretest was conducted before and posttest after the CBL session. The session was conducted as planned in the module. The performance of the students was analyzed. Feedback from the students and teachers were taken and analyzed for its utility and effectiveness.

Results: The performance of the students showed drastic improvement after the CBL sessions (p < 0.0001); 85% of the students and 80% of the teachers agreed that CBL helps in deep learning and critical thinking; 84% of students and 73% teachers felt that CBL makes subject interesting with good retention of contents and reasoning ability for their future medical practice.

Conclusion: Our newly formulated assessment tool stands appropriate, which can be included in the present curriculum. Both the teachers and the students were satisfied with this kind of teaching method. This innovative teaching module and our newly formulated assessment tool proved to be very effective for learning biochemistry.

Keywords: Assessment tool, Biochemistry, Case-based learning, Critical thinking, Curriculum planning, Multiple teaching tools, Structured cases, Student feedback, Teacher’s reflections, Teaching module.

How to cite this article: Patil VP, Patil VS, Kulkarni SP, Trivedi DJ, Axita VC, Mudaraddi RT, Shetty P, Bargale AB, Kamble PS, Ingleshwar DG, Shilpasree AS. Case-based Learning in Biochemistry: An Innovative Criterion-based Assessment Module for Effective Learning among MBBS Phase 1 Students in India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):62-68.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Suprava Patel, Rachita Nanda, Jessy Abraham, Sibasish Sahoo, Anirban Ganguly, Eli Mohapatra

Prediabetes and Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus: The Hidden Danger.

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:91-95][No of Hits : 689]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes is considered as a major challenge to the public health system in India. Recent articles clearly mention that the hidden danger in the form of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes is greatly adding to the burden silently. Awareness regarding the same, particularly among youth, can help diagnose the condition very early and thus, initiate early management.

Objectives: With an aim to estimate the frequency of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in the adult population, a camp was organized in our institute to screen the adults in our locality by estimating fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c).

Materials and methods: A total of 246 individuals were selected for analysis after excluding the known diabetic cases. Height, weight, pulse, blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Plasma fasting sugar and fasting serum lipid profile were analyzed. The HbA1c was estimated in hyperglycemic subjects.

Results: The frequency of hyperglycemia in the study population was found to be 28%. The total frequency of prediabetes was 18.3% and that of undiagnosed diabetes was 9.75%. The raised sugar could be significantly associated with age, waist circumference, BMI, hypertriglyceridemia, and cholesterol-tohigh- density lipoprotein (Chol:HDL) ratio. Aging, greater BMI, hypertriglyceridemia, and raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) depicted significant odds ratio (OR) to predict the risk factor for diabetes.

Conclusion: The hidden burden of diabetes in our locality is quite high, which, if not taken care, would result in a public health catastrophe.

Keywords: Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Fasting plasma glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin, Prediabetes.

How to cite this article: Patel S, Nanda R, Abraham J, Sahoo S, Ganguly A, Mohapatra E. Prediabetes and Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus: The Hidden Danger. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):91-95.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Rashmi Verma, Sapna Singh, Bhawna Singh, Binita Goswami, Santosh K Gupta

Role of Active Vitamin D3 in Immunity

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:166-175][No of Hits : 614]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The active vitamin D3—1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol— is the key player in calcium and phosphorus metabolism and skeletal growth and functions. However, recent new developments have revealed its role in other tissues as well, referred to as the nonclassical actions of vitamin D. Not only the endocrinal effects, evidence indicates that vitamin D3 also has autocrine and paracrine functions due to its extrarenal synthesis by many cells, including the immune cells. All cells of the immune system have vitamin D receptors and show wide-ranging effects to it. It impacts both the innate and adaptive immune systems and the overall influence points to anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and regulatory roles. It shows a significant role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as well in susceptibility to infections.

In this review, newer developments on the role of vitamin D in immunity and the underlying mechanism are discussed with possible future reflections.

Keywords: Active vitamin D3, Adaptive immunity, Calcitriol, Immunity, Innate immunity.

How to cite this article: Verma R, Singh S, Singh B, Goswami B, Gupta SK. Role of Active Vitamin D3 in Immunity. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):166-175.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Bhawna Bhimte, Amrita Vamne

Metabolic Derangement in Birth Asphyxia due to Cellular Injury with Reference to Mineral Metabolism in Different Stages of Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy in Central India

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:86-90][No of Hits : 608]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Perinatal asphyxia is one of the major causes of neonatal mortality and long-term morbidity. Although neonates with severe birth asphyxia are known to be at increased risk of early-onset hypocalcemia, the magnitude of the problem is not well documented. Magnesium plays a role in neuroprotection for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of early-onset hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia in severely asphyxiated neonates.

Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 75 newborns distributed as group I (50 asphyxiated neonates) and group II (25 healthy neonates). Serum calcium and serum magnesium was estimated within 24 hours after birth, followed by third and fifth day postbirth.

Results: Maximum number of cases (81.3%) were born by vaginal delivery. The mean value of serum calcium on days 1, 3, and 5 for group I was 7.004 ± 0.691, 7.482 ± 0.760, 8.184 ± 0.811 in contrast to group II: 8.788 ± 0.399, 9.476 ± 0.250, 9.992 ± 0.277 respectively. Whereas the mean value of serum magnesium for group I is reported as 1.545 ± 0.045, 1.496 ± 0.067, 1.556 ± 0.057 on days 1, 3, and 5, while that of group II was 1.518 ± 0.053, 1.597 ± 0.049, 1.66 ± 0.065 respectively. On HIE stage-wise comparison, abnormal calcium metabolism percentage increases with severity of asphyxia (46.6% abnormal in stage I, while 71.4% abnormal in stage III). Abnormal magnesium metabolism percentage also increases with severity of asphyxia (26.6% abnormal in stage I, while 71.4% abnormal in stage III) and this abnormality persists up to fifth day in stage III.

Conclusion: Birth asphyxia is the most common and important cause of preventable cerebral injury occurring in the neonatal period. Serum calcium and magnesium level plays exceptionally imperative role for escaping HIE and other induced complications.

Keywords: Calcium, Clinical biochemistry, Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, Magnesium, Neonatal asphyxia.

How to cite this article: Bhimte B, Vamne A. Metabolic Derangement in Birth Asphyxia due to Cellular Injury with Reference to Mineral Metabolism in Different Stages of Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy in Central India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):86-90.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Muruga Sirigere, S Meera

Novel Lipid Indices as a Better Marker of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Postmenopausal Women

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:38-41][No of Hits : 547]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major leading cause of mortality in men and women around the globe. The incidence of CVD increases with age in both the sexes, whereas it has been noted that there is a marked increase in risk among women after menopause. The hormonal changes associated with the menopause like low level of plasma estrogen and marked increase in follicle stimulating hormone levels exert a significant effect on metabolism of plasma lipids and lipoproteins leading to atherosclerosis, thereby increasing the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women.

Objectives: To study the lipid profile parameters and to calculate and compare the lipid indices with lipid profile parameters in pre- and postmenopausal women.

Materials and methods: The study group included 90 women comprising 45 postmenopausal (cases) and 45 premenopausal (control) women. To estimate lipid profile, enzymatic method was used and for calculation of lipid indices appropriate formula was used.

Results: Altered lipid profile was observed in postmenopausal women, but it was not statistically significant. Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Castelli’s risk index-I, atherogenic coefficient, and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly increased in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women, but there was no significant increase in Castelli’s risk index-II.

Conclusion: Lipid indices may be considered as a better and cost-effective tool in assessing the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Lipid indices, Lipid profile, Postmenopause.

How to cite this article: Sirigere M, Meera S. Novel Lipid Indices as a Better Marker of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Postmenopausal Women. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):38-41.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Amit D Sonagra, Zahoorunissa Deba, Asmabi Makandar, Shivaleela M Biradar

Study of Insulin Resistance in Women with Preeclampsia

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:127-130][No of Hits : 544]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The root cause of preeclampsia is placental ischemia due to impaired trophoblastic invasion in the uterine spiral arterioles. Ischemic placenta liberates various inflammatory mediators that cause widespread endothelial dysfunction leading to insulin resistance (IR). Increased IR in pregnant females can further lead to high occurrence of maternal and fetal complications.

Objectives: To compare and evaluate the role of measuring IR among women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy.

Materials and methods: A total of 35 women with preeclampsia and 35 women with normal pregnancy were included in the study as cases and controls, respectively. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting plasma insulin (FI) were measured and IR indices, such as FPG to FI ratio (FGIR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and log FI were calculated. Unpaired Student’s t-test was used for comparison. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0.

Results: The mean FI and log FI were significantly higher while QUICKI and FGIR were significantly lower in cases when compared with controls (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: As disease advances, IR increases. There is increased risk of maternal and fetal complications in presence of increased IR. Screening of all hypertensive pregnancies for IR and timely intervention may help to improve outcome.

Keywords: Fasting plasma glucose to fasting plasma insulin ratio, Insulin resistance, Preeclampsia, Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index.

How to cite this article: Sonagra AD, Deba Z, Makandar A, Biradar SM. Study of Insulin Resistance in Women with Preeclampsia. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):127-130.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Dhara N Kanani, Avanish Mishra

Comparison of Different estimated Formulas with Direct Estimation of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:151-156][No of Hits : 538]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recent recommendations of the Adult Treatment Panel and the Adolescents Treatment Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program make the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in serum the basis of classification and management of hypercholesterolemia. This makes accurate reporting of LDL-C decisive in the management of coronary heart disease (CHD). Direct measurement of LDL by homogeneous method is accurate but reagent is costly. Therefore, we have to compare different calculated LDL values with direct LDL (D-LDL) values.

Aim: The aim of this study was (1) to decide if LDL-C level was underestimated/overestimated after it was calculated using the formulae compared with direct measurement of LDL-C and (2) to choose the best calculated method that compares maximum with the direct method.

Materials and methods: We measured total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), D-LDL by direct homogeneous method in 500 fasting samples. Simultaneously, Friedewald’s (F-LDL-C), modified Friedewald’s (MFLDL- C), and Anandaraja’s (A-LDL-C) formulas were also used for calculation of LDL-C.

Results: A good correlation was found between D-LDL-C as compared with F-LDL-C, MF-LDL-C, and A-LDL-C. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation between MF-LDL-C and D-LDL-C was 0.94, which was moderately higher than other calculated methods. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation between A-LDL-C and D-LDL-C was 0.92 and F-LDL-C and D-LDL was 0.93.

Conclusion: In conclusion, among the three LDL-C formulas, the Friedewald formula and Anandaraja’ s formulas give a higher percentage of error compared with the modified Friedewald formula Therefore, modified Friedewald’s formula is better than the other two formulae for calculating LDL-C in a more costeffective manner and can be used in large population studies.

Keywords: Anandaraja’s, Direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Friedewald’s, Modified Friedewald’s.

How to cite this article: Kanani DN, Mishra A. Comparison of Different Estimated Formulas with Direct Estimation of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):151-156.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Dyavegowda Namitha, Aliya Nusrath, Arasegowda Rajeswari, N Asha Rani, Yeliyur D Shilpashree

Apolipoprotein A-I and Apolipoprotein B: Better Indicators of Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients?

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:142-146][No of Hits : 538]


ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains the leading cause of mortality and disability in adults with diabetes. Recently apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) have been found to be associated with biophysiological changes of DR than traditional lipids. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipid profile including Apo A-I, Apo B, and Apo B/Apo A-I levels in diabetes patients with or without retinopathy. The present study was conducted at Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital, India. The total numbers of subjects were 90, divided into three groups. Group I included 30 healthy controls, group II included 30 cases of diabetes mellitus (DM) without retinopathy, and group III had 30 cases of DR. Blood samples were drawn under aseptic precautions from study subjects. The investigations carried out were fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), and lipid profile including Apo A-I and Apo B in all subjects. The FPG, PPPG, lipid profile, and apolipoproteins (Apo A-I and Apo B) were estimated using autoanalyzer EM 200.There was significant increase in FPG, PPPG, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and no significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in group II and III subjects. There was significant decrease in Apo A-I and increase in Apo B levels and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio in group II and III subjects. There is a suggestive association of TGs, LDL, and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio in diabetic subjects with and without retinopathy. The Apo A-I, Apo B, and ratio of Apo B/Apo A-I are strong indicators of dyslipidemia in diabetic and DR patients. The ratio of Apo B/Apo A-I is better associated with DR and may contribute to development and progression of DR.

Keywords: Apolipoprotein A-I, Apolipoprotein B, Diabetic retinopathy.

How to cite this article: Namitha D, Nusrath A, Rajeswari A, Rani NA, Shilpashree YD. Apolipoprotein A-I and Apolipoprotein B: Better Indicators of Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients? Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):142-146.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Vijaya L Ayyala, Narendra Devabathina, Prakash Gurappagari

Effect of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on Serum Creatinine in the First Week of Newborn Life

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:131-135][No of Hits : 536]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Serum creatinine concentration in health is essentially a function of muscle mass. We designed a prospective study to know the influence of gestational age and birth weight on creatinine in the first week of life.

Materials and methods: A total of 218 neonates were enrolled during a 2-year study period (May 2014-April 2016) at Kamineni Hospitals, Hyderabad, India. The study group was categorized based on gestational age [very preterm (VPT), preterm (PT), and term] and birth weight [very low birth weight (VLBW), low birth weight (LBW), and normal birth weight (NBW)]. The serum creatinine was assayed on the day of delivery in the mother and on days 0, 3, 5, and 7 in the neonates. The method of estimation of serum creatinine was by the modified kinetic Jaffe’s reaction.

Results: Serum creatinine was high in the VPT neonates (28-33 weeks of gestational age) and VLBW neonates (<1.5 kg) on day 0. An increase in mean serum creatinine was recorded on day 3 in VPT and VLBW neonates. Mean neonatal serum creatinine in all the subgroups based either on gestational age or birth weight decreased on day 7.

Conclusion: The serum creatinine in the first week of a newborn should be interpreted cautiously as the kidneys are in the process of maturation. High serum creatinine in neonates with insignificant muscle mass is a reflection of maternal serum creatinine coupled with an immature kidney.

Keywords: Low birth weight, Preterm, Serum creatinine, Term, Very preterm.

How to cite this article: Ayyala VL, Devabathina N, Gurappagari P. Effect of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on Serum Creatinine in the First Week of Newborn Life. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):131-135.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Vikram Kesar

Thyroid Hormones and Oxidative Stress

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:58-61][No of Hits : 535]


ABSTRACT

Thyroid hormones have a pro-oxidant effect and cause increased lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is an extremely damaging process implicated in many diseases and could be a causative factor, responsible for the varied systemic manifestations of hyperthyroidism, like myopathy and myocardial insufficiency. The activities of antioxidant scavenging enzymes like erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, which prevent lipid peroxidation, are also significantly affected by hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Further, it has been observed in various studies that hypothyroidism does induce changes in free radical scavenging enzymes opposite to those observed in hyperthyroidism. Oxidative injury, therefore, is an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress.

How to cite this article: Kesar V. Thyroid Hormones and Oxidative Stress. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):58-61.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Maulik S Nayak, Reenu Sharma, Sunil S Patani

Glucose Fluctuations and Activation of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:124-126][No of Hits : 523]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: In recent years, the oxidative stress (OS)-induced free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of diabetes mellitus (DM). Persistently high glucose levels can lead to the generation of higher amounts of free radicals. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of hyperglycemia [by measuring variables: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG)] in the induction of OS [(by analyzing the OS marker: Malondialdehyde (MDA)] in type II DM.

Materials and methods: This observational study was conducted among 50 type II DM patients without complications and 50 type II DM patients with complications in S.B.K.S. Medical Institute and Research Centre, Waghodiya, Gujarat, India. Correlations between variables were tested using the Pearson rho correlation test. Chi-squared (χ2) analysis was used for comparison of groups.

Results: The MDA values correlated significantly with HbA1c and FPG values in type II diabetic subjects with complications (r = +0.29, p = 0.04; r = +0.47, p = 0.0006).

Conclusion: Glucose fluctuations may activate OS in DM. Assessment of glycemic control marker HbA1c and lipid peroxidation marker MDA is useful in DM patients for detection of risk of diabetic complications at an early stage of the disease.

Keywords: HbA1c, Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde, Oxidative stress.

How to cite this article: Nayak MS, Sharma R, Patani SS. Glucose Fluctuations and Activation of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):124-126.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Reetika Pal, Nandita Hazra

Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:17-21][No of Hits : 514]


ABSTRACT

Aim: Maternal thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy are vital for the health of the mother as well as the developing child. Fetal growth is affected by maternal thyroid levels. Various physiological changes like alterations of thyroxine-binding globulins, human chorionic gonadotropin level, and changes in iodide metabolism affect maternal thyroid hormone levels. Therefore, reference intervals (RIs) for thyroid hormones in pregnant population require to be established separately from the general population.

Materials and methods: The RIs of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in healthy pregnant women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique after segregating them into three trimesters. This study was conducted in a 492-bedded zonal-level hospital. The reference population was chosen from a study population of pregnant women by strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The assays were done by the most-commonly used, economical ELISA method employing standard kits. Tests were done using accurate and precise methods with proper quality control measures.

Results: The RIs were calculated from the central 95% of distribution of total T3, total T4, and TSH values located between 2.5 and 97.5 percentile values. The 0.90 confidence intervals for the upper and lower reference limits were calculated. The values thus obtained were different from those provided by the manufacturer kit literature.

Conclusion: It is recommended to determine one’s own laboratory-specific, method-specific, trimester-wise RIs for maternal thyroid hormone status and use them for screening of pregnant women.

Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Laboratory research, Pregnancy, Reference interval, Thyroid hormones, Trimester specific.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Pal R, Hazra N. Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):17-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Reetika Pal, Nandita Hazra

Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:96-100][No of Hits : 508]


ABSTRACT

Aim: Maternal thyroid hormone level during pregnancy is a vital parameter for the health of mother as well as developing child. Fetal growth is affected by maternal thyroid levels. Various physiological changes like alterations of thyroxine binding globulins (TBGs), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level, and change of iodide metabolism affect maternal thyroid hormone levels. Therefore, reference intervals (RI) for thyroid hormones in pregnant population require to be established separately from general population.

Materials and methods: The RIs of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in healthy pregnant women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique after segregating them into three trimesters. This study was conducted in a 492-bedded zonal level hospital. The reference population was chosen from a study population of pregnant women by strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The assays were done by the most commonly used economical ELISA method using standard kits. Tests were done using accurate and precise methods with proper quality control measures.

Results: The RIs were calculated from the central 95% of distribution of total T3, total T4, and TSH values located between 2.5 and 97.5 percentile values. The 0.90 confidence intervals (CIs) for the upper and lower reference limits were calculated. The values thus obtained were different from those provided by manufacturer kit literature.

Conclusion: It is recommended to determine own laboratoryspecific, method-specific, trimester-wise RI for maternal thyroid hormone status and use them for screening of pregnant mothers.

Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Laboratory research, Pregnancy, Reference interval, Thyroid hormones, Trimester-specific.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Pal R, Hazra N. Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):96-100.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Research
Jadab K Phukan, Gautom K Saharia, Rohini Goswami

Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:11-15][No of Hits : 1336]


ABSTRACT

Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a major form of abnormal uterine bleeding, seen in at least 10% of all new outpatient department patients. The thyroid gland is known to play an important role in maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle.

Aims: To assess the thyroid hormone status in apparently euthyroid patients with DUB and to correlate it with incidence of DUB.

Materials and methods: Fifty DUB patients were selected on the basis of clinical history, examination, and relevant investigations. Equal numbers of age-matched women with normal menstrual cycle were taken as controls. Thyroid hormones, viz., thyroidstimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by using Microsoft Excel software.

Results: The most common menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia (48%) followed by metrorrhagia and polymenorrhea (14% each). Hypothyroidism was more prevalent among cases (85.7%) as compared with controls (14.3%). In patients with menorrhagia, 33.3% of patients had hypothyroidism.

Conclusion: Hypothyroidism occurs in DUB patients commonly. There is a need for mandatory thyroid screening in all patients with menstrual irregularities to help in early detection of the cause and treatment of DUB patients to avoid surgery.

Keywords: Assam, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Hypothyroidism, Menorrhagia.

How to cite this article: Phukan JK, Saharia GK, Goswami R. Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):11-15.

Source of support: MD/MS Thesis Grant of Rs 1,50,000/- (Rupees one lakh fifty thousand only) for students of North East region from the Department of Biotechnology under Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Research
Shilpa B Asegaonkar, Ishrat Kareem, Sunita Aghade, Avinash Pagdhune, Anand Thorat, Mangala S Borkar

Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:6-10][No of Hits : 1283]


ABSTRACT

Aims: To compare metabolic status of lean vs overweight/ obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and correlate biochemical parameters with anthropometric measures.

Materials and methods: A total of 100 T2DM patients were categorized as lean and overweight/obese according to body mass index (BMI); 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were selected. Anthropometric measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip (W:H) were recorded. Fasting blood samples were assayed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated by Friedewald’s formula and TG: HDL was measured as measure of insulin resistance (IR).

Results: Anthropometric measures of overall (BMI 31.65 ± 5.49, 20.34 ± 2.45 vs 22.29 ± 3.21) and visceral adiposity (WC 91.98 ± 6.8, 75.45 ± 4.34 vs 74.19 ± 3.98 and W:H 0.99 ± 0.12, 0.78 ± 0.21 vs 0.76 ± 0.32) were significantly higher in overweight/ obese (p < 0.05) compared with lean T2DM and controls. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA were significantly raised and HDL decreased in T2DM compared with those of controls. But much higher values were observed in overweight/obese than in lean group. Triglycerides: HDL was significantly higher in obese than in lean patients (4.66 ± 1.89 vs 7.91 ± 3.01), confirming significantly decreased insulin sensitivity among obese than nonobese diabetics. Positive correlation was observed between BMI, WC, W:H and TC, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL, while negative correlation was observed with HDL in obese group. Lean individuals with normal BMI, WC had deranged lipids with IR.

Conclusion: Lean and obese T2DM have dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is associated with overall and visceral adiposity in obese and not in lean T2DM individuals.

Keywords: Lean, Lipid profile, Nonesterified free fatty acids, Obese, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

How to cite this article: Asegaonkar SB, Kareem I, Aghade S, Pagdhune A, Thorat A, Borkar MS. Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):6-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Research
Dipti C Ekka, Anju Jain, Manju Puri

Role of Hormones in Unexplained Infertility

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:34-37][No of Hits : 926]


ABSTRACT

Unexplained infertility is a term applied to an infertile couple whose standard infertility investigations and workup are normal. The aim of the study is to assess the role of hormones in women with unexplained infertility. The female reproductive system is regulated by a balanced hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are important for ovulation and stimulation of secretion of estradiol and progesterone from the ovaries. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an important marker to predict the ovarian reserve. The primary function of the ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization, embryo development, and implantation. Fifty women diagnosed with unexplained infertility were enrolled as cases. These were age matched with 50 healthy fertile women volunteers. Body mass index (BMI) was found to be significantly higher in women with unexplained infertility. Serum FSH, LH, and estradiol were significantly higher in cases. LH:FSH ratio and serum AMH were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. To conclude, serum AMH, FSH, and LH:FSH ratio indicated poor ovarian reserve in women with unexplained infertility.

Keywords: Hormones, Role, Unexplained infertility.

How to cite this article: Ekka DC, Jain A, Puri M. Role of Hormones in Unexplained Infertility. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):34-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Research
PK Patra, PK Khodiar, D Sahu, GK Sahu

Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:1-5][No of Hits : 888]


ABSTRACT

Changes in the level of various biochemical parameters play a significant role in the physiopathology of sickle cell disease (SCD). The aim of this study is to determine the level of urinary micoalbumin and plasma level of ascorbic acid and uric acid in subjects suffering from sickle cell anemia. A total of 30 subjects consisting of both males and females whose age range varied from 10 to 30 years were included in the study. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio invariably increased in all studied subjects as compared with the control subjects. The level of ascorbic acid in the plasma significantly declined in SCD subjects when compared with that of control subjects (p < 0.05). Also, the decrease in level of uric acid in plasma of SCD patients was significant as compared with the control subjects. Significant changes in these biochemical parameters thus could be used as reliable markers in nephropathy in sickle cell patients and thus in the management of the disease.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Microalbuminuria, Nephropathy, Sickle cell disease.

How to cite this article: Patra PK, Khodiar PK, Sahu D, Sahu GK. Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Research
Anjana Singh, Mamta Gupta, Rajeev Ranjan, Vandana Saini, SK Gupta

Cystatin C is a Better Marker of Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Pregnancies

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:21-27][No of Hits : 862]


ABSTRACT

Background: Glomerular endotheliosis is an essential component in the pathophysiology of gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia (PE) which results in renal dysfunction. This is not always detected by routine renal function tests, such as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Cystatin C, an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor, is completely absorbed by renal tubules and has been shown to be an ideal marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which needs to be evaluated in assessing renal dysfunction occurring in GH and PE.

Aims: The present study is designed to evaluate serum cystatin C levels in normal pregnancy, GH, and PE and compare its efficacy with traditional renal function tests.

Materials and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 75 subjects enrolled, comprised of 25 subjects each of normal pregnancy, GH, and PE. Serum cystatin C, blood urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, and urinary protein/creatinine ratio were estimated in all subjects prior to delivery.

Results: All renal parameters including cystatin C were significantly raised in GH and PE compared with control group. However, only serum cystatin C level (and no other renal parameters) was significantly higher in PE group compared with GH group. Area under the curve for cystatin C was maximum (0.917) compared with other parameters. Cystatin C had a higher sensitivity and specificity than other conventional markers.

Conclusion: Serum cystatin C is a better marker of renal dysfunction in hypertensive pregnancies.

Keywords: Cystatin C, Gestational hypertension, Hypertensive pregnancies, Preeclampsia, Renal dysfunction.

How to cite this article: Singh A, Gupta M, Ranjan R, Saini V, Gupta SK. Cystatin C is a Better Marker of Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Pregnancies. Indian J Med Biochem 2016; 20(1):21-27.

Source of support: The study was done by institutional funding.

Conflict of interest: None.


 
Original Research
Mohammed Noorjahan, Kandregula Madhavi, Chandran Priscilla, Shaik A Jabeen

Vitamin B12 and Holotranscobalamin Levels in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:16-20][No of Hits : 810]


ABSTRACT

Diabetic neuropathy is the most common and debilitating microvascular complication leading to nontraumatic amputations. Identifying the role of vitamin B12 in the etiology of neuropathy is crucial because simple vitamin B12 replacement may reverse neurologic symptoms if confirmed. Large proportion of vegetarians and patients on metformin have been associated with lowering of vitamin B12 levels. We have undertaken study on 60 vegetarian subjects between the age of 30 and 60 years, 20 healthy controls, 20 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who were on metformin with peripheral neuropathy (DMWN), and 20 diabetics without peripheral neuropathy (DMWON). Vitamin B12, homocysteine, and folate levels were measured, and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) is also included, to improve the diagnosis of tissue vitamin B12 status, as holoTC is the biologically active fraction and more sensitive index of vitamin B12 status than total vitamin B12 itself. Complete history and clinical evaluation for neuropathy and electroneuromyography were recorded.

Results: In the DMWN group, vitamin B12 levels were significantly higher than in the DMWON group and controls [1013 (564-1501) pmol/l, 387 (245-731) pmol/l, and 305 (234-472) pmol/l respectively]. Similarly, serum holoTC was also found to be significantly higher in the DMWN [203.8 (129-300) pmol/l] group compared with the DMWON [94.4 (42.2-230.6) pmol/l] group and controls [74 (40-170) pmol/l]. Whereas mean levels of homocysteine and folate did not show any significant difference between groups, significant increase in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c was seen in the DMWN group compared with DMWON group and controls. Duration of diabetes is also significantly more in DMWN group compared with DMWON group.

Conclusion: We found that vitamin B12 and holoTC levels were high in patients with DMWN and DMWON groups compared with controls. Our study demonstrated that peripheral neuropathy was not associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in diabetics. These findings merit further research on a larger population to investigate into the cause of diabetic neuropathy, the factors involved, and benefit of vitamin B12 supplementation in these patients.

Key messages: Vitamin B12 status has no association with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Holotranscobalamin, Peripheral neuropathy, Vitamin B12.

How to cite this article: Noorjahan M, Madhavi K, Priscilla C, Jabeen SA. Vitamin B12 and Holotranscobalamin Levels in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):16-20.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Research
Neeraj Agarwal, Jasbinder Kaur, Jaswinder Kaur, Seema Gupta, Shivani Jaswal, Harjeet Kaur, HM Swami

Assessing Status of Iodine Nutrition in Union Territory of Chandigarh, India

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:38-41][No of Hits : 754]


ABSTRACT

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) constitute a major public health problem in India. Goiter occurring in a large fraction of population (> 10%) is said to be due to iodine deficiency rather than any other cause. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Union Territory of Chandigarh with the aim to track the elimination of IDD to determine the iodine status of school children unexamined for goiter status and excretion median urinary iodine concentration. Goiter was assessed by standard palpation technique in 6,517 school children, aged 6 to 12 years, selected through 30 cluster sampling methods. Spot urine samples of 823 children were collected for estimation of urinary iodine using modified method of Sandell and Kolthoff. Household salt samples of the 548 selected children from schools were analyzed for its iodine content by standard iodometric titration method. The overall prevalence of goiter was found to be 14.2% among the children examined. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 199 g/L. About 71.2% of the salt samples were adequately iodized, having iodine content of > 15 ppm. Since UIE reflects recent iodine nutrition at the time of measurement and thyroid size shows iodine nutrition over months or years, it can be said that this region is in transition phase from iodine-deficient to iodinesufficient territory.

Keywords: Chandigarh, Goiter prevalence, Iodine deficiency disorders, Salt iodization, Urinary iodine.

How to cite this article: Agarwal N, Kaur J, Kaur J, Gupta S, Jaswal S, Kaur H, Swami HM. Assessing Status of Iodine Nutrition in Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):38-41.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Poster Presentations

Poster Presentations

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:2] [Pages:121] [Pages No:73-121][No of Hits : 516]


ABSTRACT

Adolescent Obesity: A Case Report
AK Roopa, V Ananthan, K Ramadevi

Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in newly Diagnosed Cases of Essential Hypertension
Erfana A Hazarika, Kailash Bhattacharyya

Lupus: A View from the Renal Angle
R Kowsalya

Study of Association of Serum Lipids with Diabetic Retinopathy in Type II Diabetes
Pragati Khanorkar

A Retrospective Analysis of Lipid Profile of the Patients attending Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences and Its Cardiovascular Disease Implication
Ch Rebika, Th Ratanmani Singh, RK Vidyabati Devi, T Rajan Singh

Effect of Shift Duties on Good Clinical Laboratory Practices: A Review
Sudarshan Shelke, Ajit Sontakke, Pramod Ingale

A Study on Hemoglobin A1c Level and Serum Pancreatic Lipase in Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus
Sujeeta Oinam, Romola Thiyam, Th Opendro Singh, Gyaneshwar W Singh

When does Serum Ceruloplasmin Peak in Acute Myocardial Infarction?
Sweta Das, Anita Bijoor

Study of Serum Vitamin D Levels, Marker of Inflammation and Surrogate Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients
Duryodhan Sahoo, Roma Rattan, Srikrushna Mahapatra

Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Case Report
GC Siva Sankari, K Menaka Shanthi, K Pramila, K Ramadevi

Comparison of High-density Lipoprotein in Anemic and Nonanemic Patients
Mafooza Rashid, Shradha Mishra, Gautam Sarkar

Fasting vs Nonfasting Serum Sample for Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Pregnancy
Mandayal Jamatia, Simant B Singh, K Pratibha

A Case-control Study of Serum Vitamin D Levels in Alcoholic Liver Disease Patients
Nimmy M James, C Vibha, HL Vishwanath

Serum Calcium and Serum Phosphate in Type II Diabetic Patients
Rahima R Malek, Gagandeep K Sidhu, Anuja Adarsh

Dyslipidemia and Inflammatory Markers in Association with Hemoglobin A1c in Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Ratna R Gogulamudi, Priscilla Chandran, NN Sreedevi

Serum Ionized Calcium Levels in Children in Indian Population compared with Western Data
Saswati K Rath, Rina Tripathy, Srikrushna Mahapatra, Sucharita Mohanty

A Study of Interrelationship between Vitamin D, Cortisol, and Depression
Sudeshna Ray, Subhashree Ray, Viyatprajna Acharya, Bratati Singh, Surjeet Sahu

Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Case Report
T Poornima, V Ananthan, K Pramila, K Ramadevi

Glycated Hemoglobin Marker for Long-term Glycemic Control
Ajay Puri, VJ Chrungoo


 
Oral Presentations

Oral Presentations

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:2] [Pages:121] [Pages No:16-68][No of Hits : 510]


ABSTRACT

Serum Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Activity and Electrolyte Level in Primary Hypertension of South Coastal, Odisha
Sanjeev Kumar, Pramila K Mishra, Nirupama Devi, Rasmita K Padhy, Sarmistha Swain

Relationship between Gestational Age and Heme Oxygenase-1 Levels in Maternal and Cord Blood of Preeclamptics
A Ghosh, R Tiwari, S Nanda, S Kharb

The Micro Ribonucleic Acid 19b Functions as an Oncomir in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Amit Samadhiya, Sameer A Guru, Prasant Yadav, Pooja Singh, Prakash C Ray, Alpana Saxena

Requirement of Vitamin B12 Supplementation in Pregnant Anemic Women
Roopali Goyal, Amita Yadav, Shailja Shukla, Manju Puri, Abha Singh

Electrolyte Imbalance and Anion Gap in Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Anindita Paul, Dinesh Agarwal, Atul Agarwal

Association of Hypoxia Responsiveness and Cell Turnover in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Jitender Prasad, Anisha Sharma, Binita Goswami, Kiran Agarwal, Pravesh Mehra

Thyroid Dysfunction among Transfusion-dependent Beta Thalassemia Major Patients
Ankush Singhal, Ranjana Mathur, Niranjan Rajpurohit, Neha Jaiswal

Significance of Serum Free Light Chain Assay as an Adjuvant to Serum Protein Electrophoresis in Detection of Multiple Myeloma
Anuj Parkash, Anurag Mehta

A Study of Serum Amylase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Arju Saikia, SM Rohman

Heart Rate Variability Progress: A Novel Marker of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease
Arun Nagtilak, Ravi P Singh, Gautam Sarkar

To Study the Potential Role of Endogenous Cortisol and Testosterone in the Pathogenesis of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Ashuma Sachdeva, Himanshu D Kumar, Manisha Nada, Sumeet Khanduja, Sumit Sachdeva, Richa Goel, Veena S Ghalaut

Serum Uric Acid Levels in Type II Diabetes Mellitus with Hypertension: A Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North-East India
Avinanda Mahanta, Syeda M Rohman

Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification Assay: Tool in the Molecular Diagnosis of Gene Copy Number Variation in Human Genetic Disease
Avinash Pagdhune, R Angalena, Ashwin Dalal

Effect of Resveratrol on Hepatic Nitric Oxide Bioavailability in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
V Balasubramaniyan, M Sundhar, K Ashwini, V Vigneshwaran

Low Alkaline Phosphatase in Adult Population: An Indicator of Zinc and Magnesium Deficiency
Bratati Singh, Abhijit Senapati, Subhashree Ray

Hypothyroidism in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus attending Jorhat Medical College Hospital: A Hospital-based Study
Chandan K Kashyap, Saurabh Borkotoki

Is Short-term Anticholinesterase Insecticide Poisoning a Risk Factor for Early Onset of Diabetes Mellitus?
G Chandana, Kavita Rasalkar, HR Suma


 
Poster Presentations

Poster Presentations

[Year:2015] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:153] [Pages No:27-153][No of Hits : 1460]


Poster Presentations

Lab Quality Management and Methodology

Optimum Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide in Jaffe?s Two-point Method for Serum Creatinine Measurement with Respect to Linearity Measurement as per Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute EP-6A Guideline
Riddhi R Patel, Khushbu Soni, Sarita Mangukia, Piyush Tailor, Sarita Patel, Shailesh Patel

Biosensors and their Applications
V Sreeramulu

Effect of Mean used for Calculation of Randox International Quality Assessment Scheme Target Score on Apparent Laboratory Performance for Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Examination
Sarita J Mangukiya, Khushbu Soni, Riddhi Patel, Piyush Tailor, Sarita H Patel

Are Sodium and Potassium Results on Arterial Blood Gas Analyzer Equivalent to those on Electrolyte Analyzer?
Shalini Gupta, Kamaljit Singh

Accreditation: The Need of the Hour
Vibha Uppal, Neha

Comparative Evaluation of Two Different Protocols for Derivation of Mean and Standard Deviation of Internal Quality Control Sera
Hinal Shah, Arpita Patel, Shilpa Jain

Patient Risk Management in Clinical Laboratory
Parkash Anuj

Study of Variation in Serum Electrolyte Values over a Period of Time
Dipti Tiwari, Pramod Ingale, Shubhangi Wankhade

Indices of Glucose Homeostasis in Cord Blood of Term and Preterm Newborns
Afzal Ahmad, MS Rukmini, Charu Yadav, Ashish Agarwal, AM Poornima, H Anupama

Comparative Study of Serum Electrolytes Levels on Arterial Blood Gas and Ion Selective Electrode Analyzer
Shubhangi Wankhade, Pramod Ingale, Dipti Tiwari

Serum Calcium, Phosphorus, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Glucose Levels in Tuberculosis Patients
Rajender Kumar, Asha Kumari, Veena S Ghalaut

Turnaround Time for Liver Function Tests in a Tertiary Care Center
Parveen Kavathekar, SB Asegaonkar, AP Thorat

Role of Quality Control in a Clinical Laboratory
Heena Singla, KMDS Panag, Gitanjali Goyal, Anil Batta

Professionalism in Laboratory Medicine
Sumant K Sharma, Smita Sharma, Rami A Al Dagrer

Analytical Sensitivity of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Assays by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay and Enzyme-linked Fluorescent Assay
K Pramila Egmore, Poonguzhali Gopinath

Utility of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer in Preterm Neonates in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Anjali Verma, Karnail Singh, Sandeep Banga, Sumit Dokwal

An Optimized, Cost-effective, and Efficient Laboratory Protocol for Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Extraction and Quantification for Proteomic Studies
Debapriya_Rath, Sudama Rathore, Pradeep K Patra

Comparison of Electrolytes by Blood Gas Analyzer and Laboratory Autoanalyzer
Ravi Yadav, Pallavi Sonika, Arushi Agarwal, Alok Khanna

Liquid Biopsy: A Recent Breakthrough in Cancer Genome Study
Shilpa Jain

Sigma Approach to Improve on Quality Indicators in a Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory
Animesh Bardoloi, Hemanta Das, Manab Kalita

Monitoring of Turnaround Time in Biochemistry Lab in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Punjab
Vaneet Kaur, Kamaljit Singh, Minni Verma, Brinder Chopra

Effect of Blood Storage on Complete Biochemistry
Monica Verma, Kiran Dahiya, Deepika Malik, Rama Devi, Veena S Ghalaut, PK Sehgal, Abhishek Soni

The Contribution of Lyzed Red Blood Cells to the Electrolyte Status of Serum
Inder P Kaur, Shikha Agarwal, Arun Nagtilak, Gautam Sarkar

Influence of Hemolysis and its Intensity on Several Biochemical Analytes
Arun Nagtilak, Inder P Kaur, Shikha Agarwal, Gautam Sarkar

Influence of Hemolysis and its Intensity on Thyroid Hormone Estimation
Shikha Agarwal, Gautam Sarkar, Inder P Kaur, Arun Nagtilak

Comparison of Melt Curve Profile of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Intercalating Dyes Used for Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Stuti Gupta, Mohit Mehndiratta, Seema Garg

Comparison of Effect of Ramp Rate on Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification by Melt Curve Analysis
Nilesh Chandra, Mohit Mehndiratta, Seema Garg

The ?Power? of a Study
KSS Sai Baba

A Walk through the Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory ? Past, Present, and Future ? A Career?s Experience
Shanthi N Kamatham

Immunology, Infection, Inflammation

Maternal Serum Endothelial Inflammatory Markers in Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia
Sarika Arora, Anil Kumar, Taru Gupta, Sangeeta Gupta, Nupur Gupta, Shishir Kumar

Inflammation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Rajni Dawar, Tabassum Yasmin

Prognostic Value of Serum Cholesterol Level in Sepsis
Pallavi Sonika, Arushi Agarwal, Ravi Yadav, Alok Khanna, Asha Kumari

Role of Serum Protein Electrophoresis and Immunotyping in Monoclonal Gammopathies
Gitanjali, KMDS Panag, Sheenam, Kirti, Jasmeet Singh, Raja Paramjeet

Serum γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase and Its Association with Inflammation in Obese Young Adults
D Rajarajeswari, JN Naidu

High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein, Lipid Profile, and Atherogenic Ratios in Patients of Lupus Nephritis
Neeraja Kunireddy, Priscilla A Chandran, Mahesh Putla, Siraj A Khan

Correlation of Thyroid Hormones and C-reactive Protein Level in Neonatal Sepsis
Arushi Agarwal, Pallavi Sonika, Ravi Yadav, Alok Khanna, Asha Kumari

Adenosine Deaminase Levels in Clinically Suspected Cases of Neonatal Sepsis
HR Suma, Chandrakala Iyer, G Naveen, Kavitha P Rasalkar, G Chandana, Uzma Anjum

Correlation of Serum Thyroid-stimulating Hormone, Cortisol, Iron, and Ferritin with Clinical Staging, Immunological Classification, AIDS, and HAART Status in HIV-infected Children
Charu Yadav, Poornima A Manjrekar, Afzal Ahmad, Ashish Agarwal, Anupama Hegde, MS Rukmini

Role of Autologous Platelet-derived Growth Factors and Fibrin-rich Plasma in Management of Chronic Nonhealing Ulcers: A Pilot Study
Piyush Bhargava, Suprava Patel, OP Tucker, V Jain, R Gahine, PK Khodiar, PK Patra

Serum Iron, Folate, Ferritin, and CD4 Count in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Women
M Kumawat, M Lallar, PS Ghalaut, S Nanda, S Kharb

Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patients
Sphoorti Bende, Kedar Joshi, AP Thorat

Vitamin D Level in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections
Kamlesh K Rathod, Alok Khanna, Ravi Yadav, Virender Gahlawat, Prathapa, Sunny Lohia

Neonatal Meningitis and Biochemical Parameter in Cerebrospinal Fluid
Sunny Lohia, Geeta Gathwala


 
Original Article
Sapna Vyakaranam, Sindhu Kondaveedu, Srinivas Nori, Shailendra Dandge, Aparna V Bhongir

Study of Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:66-70][No of Hits : 468]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study is to see the difference between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and controls and find an association between hsCRP and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in SCH.

Materials and methods: Totally, 60 subjects were selected for the study, which included 30 cases of SCH and 30 controls with normal thyroid status.

Results: The mean TSH levels were significantly elevated in SCH when compared with controls (9.20 ± 2.12 mU/mL; 2.26 ± 0.78 mU/mL; p-value: <0.0001 respectively). Significantly elevated hsCRP was observed in SCH when compared with controls (3.05 ± 1.78 mg/L; 0.62 ± 0.39 mg/L; p < 0.0001 respectively). As per stratification of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by hsCRP, 23% of SCH had high risk of developing CVD. Multivariate linear regression suggested that hsCRP is significantly and positively associated with SCH after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI).

Conclusion: Elevated levels of hsCRP in SCH suggest inflammation as a possible factor for linking SCH and CVD.

Clinical significance: Progression to overt hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk are the major implications of SCH. The hsCRP is not only an inflammatory marker, but also a stimulator of inflammation and predictor of CVD. The hsCRP indicates the cardiovascular risk associated with SCH. Hence, it can be used to screen SCH patients who are at a risk of developing CVD.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, Subclinical hypothyroidism.

How to cite this article: Vyakaranam S, Kondaveedu S, Nori S, Dandge S, Bhongir AV. Study of Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):66-70.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Shubhrajit Saha, Indrajit Nath, Mita S Das, Samarpita Mukherjee

A Study on Renal Function Status of Patients with Hypothyroidism attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Bengal

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:10-17][No of Hits : 415]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Thyroid hormones influence renal development, renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), electrolytes, and water homeostasis. The location of the present study is situated at Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which is a part of sub-Himalayan Terai regions with high prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions, especially hypothyroidism. The objective of this observational cross-sectional study is to substantiate the effects of thyroid hormonal status on kidney by estimating serum creatinine, serum urea, albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and estimated GFR (eGFR) among drug naïve primary hypothyroid patients, hypothyroid patients under treatment for more than 2 months, and age- and sex-matched control group.

Materials and methods: The study includes 48 patients with primary hypothyroidism in a drug naïve status, 40 hypothyroid patients under treatment, and 44 healthy control in the age group of 25 to 55 years. The collected blood and urine samples from the study population have been estimated for the study parameters. Both Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKDEPI) equation and four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation were used to calculate eGFR.

Results: The mean values of serum creatinine, urea, and ACR are significantly increased among untreated patients with primary hypothyroidism, with the decrease in the eGFR, in comparison to healthy control group (p < 0.001); whereas patients on treatment for hypothyroidism show fall in serum creatinine, serum urea, and ACR level, with increase in eGFR values compared with drug naïve primary hypothyroid patients (p < 0.001). In addition, the results of eGFR and ACR are significantly correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values.

Conclusion: Statistically significant alteration in renal function parameters is associated with untreated primary hypothyroidism. Moreover, with the initiation of the treatment for the same can cause reversal of the altered status of renal function.

Keywords: Albumin-to-creatinine ratio, Estimated glomerular filtration rate, Hypothyroidism, Microalbumin, Renal function.

How to cite this article: Saha S, Nath I, Das MS, Mukherjee S. A Study on Renal Function Status of Patients with Hypothyroidism attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Bengal. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):10-17.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Poonam Agarwal, Binita Goswami, Monica Verma, Sarika Arora, Bishamber D Tooraa

Correlation of Serum Copper and Zinc Levels with Glycemic Status in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Uncomplicated Type II Diabetes Mellitus

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:32-35][No of Hits : 398]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an epidemic facing the world today. The disease is characterized by a multitude of metabolic derangements which eventually lead to hyperglycemia and its associated complications. Trace elements, such as copper and zinc act as cofactors for essential enzymes of the metabolic pathways. Studies have reported conflicting results about their purported role in DM.

Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 22 newly diagnosed cases of type II DM (T2DM) and 30 age- and sexmatched healthy controls over a period of 2 months under the Indian Council of Medical Research Short Term Research Studentship (ICMR-STS) scheme. Blood glucose, serum zinc, copper, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were estimated using commercially available kits on Transasia XL 640. Data were collected and analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.

Results: The zinc levels were significantly decreased in the cases as compared with controls while there was no significant difference in the copper levels. A positive correlation between the copper and zinc levels was seen in the cases.

Conclusion: Trace elements play an important role in the maintenance of blood sugar levels and an in-depth understanding of the underlying pathways may help in a better management of DM.

Keywords: Copper, Glycated hemoglobin, Zinc.

How to cite this article: Agarwal P, Goswami B, Verma M, Arora S, Tooraa BD. Correlation of Serum Copper and Zinc Levels with Glycemic Status in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Uncomplicated Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):32-35.

Source of support: The study was conducted under the ICMRSTS scheme.

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Jaishree Choudhary, Bushra Fiza, Maheep Sinha, Rati Mathur

Serum Homocysteine and Its Association with Lipid Profile in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:26-31][No of Hits : 382]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a widely prevalent disease that has apparently become a global epidemic. Long-standing diabetes is characterized by development of several complications, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. These complications share a common etiology of poor glycemic control and endothelial dysfunctions. Any metabolite which is atherosclerotic in nature may contribute to the development of such chronic complications. Dyslipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia have been recognized as independent markers of atherosclerosis. However, their influence on each other and on insulin metabolism is highly debated. Evaluation of the association of these risk markers may be helpful in decreasing the occurrence of complications and increasing the age of diabetic patients.

Aim: The present study was planned to study the association of homocysteine with the components of lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin in type II diabetic patients. Serum homocysteine and lipid profile levels of diabetic patients were also compared with those of healthy nondiabetic subjects.

Results: Serum homocysteine and lipid profile were observed to have a strong association. Diabetic patients with hyperhomocysteinemia were reported to have higher S. cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. S. homocysteine was also found to be elevated in patients with HbA1c levels >8.0%, which indicates a poor glycemic control. On comparing with healthy subjects, S. homocysteine, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were also significantly higher in diabetic patients.

Conclusion: Regular screening for serum lipid profile and hyperhomocysteinemia is strongly recommended in patients suffering from type II DM. Proper patient management in terms of controlling lipid levels, hyperhomocysteinemia, and maintenance of a good glycemic control can assist in averting the development of various complications and enhancing the quality of life.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Glycemic control, Homocysteine, Hyperhomocysteinemia, Lipid profile.

How to cite this article: Choudhary J, Fiza B, Sinha M, Mathur R. Serum Homocysteine and Its Association with Lipid Profile in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Med Biochem 2018; 22(1):26-31.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sriram Naresh, Aparna R Bitla, Alok Sachan

Utility of Saliva for Measurement of Thyroid Hormones

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:36-40][No of Hits : 356]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Saliva as an alternative biological fluid of choice to blood in diagnosing systemic diseases evolved due to its noninvasive nature of collection. There is little information on the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) and T3 levels in saliva. The study was thus taken up to study the suitability of saliva for measurement of thyroid hormones in comparison to serum.

Materials and methods: Fasting saliva and serum samples were collected from 30 healthy individuals for the measurement of total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), TSH, free T3 (FT3), and free T4 (FT4). Timed samples were collected from 10 subjects for the evaluation of diurnal variation.

Results: The thyroid hormones studied, i.e., TT3, TT4, FT4 and TSH were significantly higher in serum when compared to saliva (p < 0.01). A significant positive correlation was found between serum and salivary TSH (r = 0.420, p = 0.001). Variations in salivary TSH reflected the pattern seen in serum TSH. However, there was a lack of agreement between the measurement of TSH in serum and saliva when assessed using Bland Altman and Mountain plots.

Conclusion: Saliva cannot be used as an alternate sample for analysis of thyroid hormones.

Keywords: Saliva, Serum, Thyroid hormones.

How to cite this article: Naresh S, Bitla AR, Sachan A. Utility of Saliva for Measurement of Thyroid Hormones. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):36-40.

Source of support: Sri Balaji Aarogya Varaprasadini Scheme (SBAVP) of SVIMS, TTD.

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sunita M Aghade, Jayshree S Bavikar

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Reproductive-aged Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Study from West-Central India

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:61-65][No of Hits : 351]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder prevailing in premenopausal women. These patients are 11 times more likely to encounter metabolic syndrome (MetS). There is a substantial overlap into the components of these two syndromes, which in turn leads to increased risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the foreseeable future. In this perspective, the present study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its individual components in PCOS in Indian scenario.

Study design: This cross-sectional study included 150 women diagnosed with PCOS between 18 and 38 years age. Demographic variables including age, education, occupation, inhabitant area, history of infertility, and family history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension were collected. Anthropometric parameters like weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/ DBP) were measured. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical parameters like glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

Result: The prevalence of MetS in women with PCOS was 38.67%. The most prevalent component was decreased HDL (84.67%), followed by increased WC (75.33%), followed by raised TG (42%).

Conclusion: The analogy of PCOS with MetS implicates that it is crucial to analyze the emerging trend of MetS in patients with PCOS. Recognition of this high-risk group will aid in the enforcement of preventive strategies including therapeutic lifestyle modifications and risk factor management. This will have a promising impact on women’s health and will prevent or delay the outset of varying cardiometabolic complications in PCOS.

Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Prevalence.

How to cite this article: Aghade SM, Bavikar JS. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Reproductive-aged Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Study from West-Central India. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):61-65.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Shrirang P Kulkarni, Vidya S Patil, Vijayetha P Patil, Deepti G Ingleshwar, Alagilwada S Shilpasree, Axita C Vani, Praveen K Shetty, Rakesh T Muddaraddi, Dhiraj J Trivedi, Anil B Bargale, Pramod S Kamble

Combination of Multiple Teaching Tools in learning Biochemistry: Perceptions of Medical Undergraduate Students

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:41-46][No of Hits : 323]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Multiple teaching tools for medical undergraduates in biochemistry play a pivotal role for overall understanding of the subject and its applicability in clinical medicine. Students must be able to apply the knowledge of biochemistry effectively in dealing with real-life case scenarios.

Objectives: To implement combination of multiple teaching tools topic wise; to evaluate the students’ perception toward effectiveness of combination of tutorials, case-based learning (CBL) sessions, video-based interactive sessions (VBIS) with demonstrations when they were supplemented and coordinated with didactic lectures (DLs) at regular intervals and also to evaluate the students’ perception toward usefulness of formative assessments.

Materials and methods: Teaching methods were formulated for Carbohydrate metabolism and Genetics including multiple teaching tools. All 100 students of Phase 1 MBBS course were included. Formative assessments were conducted simultaneously with feedback to students. Students’ perception was collected regarding the effectiveness and usefulness of multiple teaching tools and formative assessments by a pretested questionnaire.

Results: Regarding coordinated approach with multiple teaching tools like DL, tutorial, practical and CBL, most students felt that it was useful toward better understanding of the subject (83%), good retention of the subject (79%), improved communication skills (70%), and effective preparation for course end exams (83%). Students expressed that they want to have formative assessments regularly with feedback.

Conclusion: Using a combination of multiple teaching tools separately for each topic improves the understanding and retention of the contents better as perceived by the students. Students felt that formative assessment with feedback reinforces their ability to perform better.

Keywords: Case-based learning, Formative assessment, Multiple teaching tools, Tutorials in biochemistry, Video-based interactive learning.

How to cite this article: Kulkarni SP, Patil VS, Patil VP, Ingleshwar DG, Shilpasree AS, Vani AC, Shetty PK, Muddaraddi RT, Trivedi DJ, Bargale AB, Kamble PS. Combination of Multiple Teaching Tools in learning Biochemistry: Perceptions of Medical Undergraduate Students. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):41-46.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sonam C Bhutia, Rashmi R Phukan, Yogesh Verma

Vitamin D Status and Its Association with Age and Gender in East Sikkim

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:71-74][No of Hits : 321]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is an underdiagnosed, overlooked, yet a major health problem globally. It is prevalent in all the age groups and genders affecting various systems in the body.

Materials and methods: A total of 360 patients attending the outpatient department were included in the study. Vitamin D levels were checked by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA).

Results: A total of 64% patients were found to be deficient in vitamin D followed by 20% insufficient (n = 71), whereas 15% had sufficient vitamin D and the remaining 1% were found to be under potential toxicity. Females (63%) were mostly deficient than males (37%). The deficiency was highly prevalent in between the age groups from 23 to 33 years (18%).

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Sikkim among the younger population which could be due to sedentary lifestyle, less exposure to sunlight, and low dietary intake.

Keywords: Deficient, Insufficient, Latitude, Prevalent, Sunlight, Vitamin D.

How to cite this article: Bhutia SC, Phukan RR, Verma Y. Vitamin D Status and Its Association with Age and Gender in East Sikkim. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):71-74.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Ekta Bansal

Comparison of Direct Bilirubin on Two Automated Systems: Influence of Delta Bilirubin

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:75-77][No of Hits : 295]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: In a routine clinical laboratory having more than one automated system, comparison of methods experiment provides a means to assess any method’s performance. It helps to estimate systematic (constant and proportional) difference between two methods. If the difference between two methods is small and clinically acceptable, then these two methods can be used interchangeably. In this study, we have compared direct bilirubin on two automated systems and tried to analyze the cause behind the difference between the two.

Materials and methods: Serum samples obtained from normal individuals as well as those with unconjugated and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia were analyzed on Cobas 6000 and Olympus AU 2700 simultaneously.

Results: There was a significant difference in the values of direct bilirubin in patients with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia on the two automated systems. No difference was seen in normal persons and in patients with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

Conclusion: Delta bilirubin might be a contributing factor to the difference between direct bilirubin on the two systems, as it is expected only in patients with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

Keywords: Comparison of methods, Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, Direct bilirubin, Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

How to cite this article: Bansal E. Comparison of Direct Bilirubin on Two Automated Systems: Influence of Delta Bilirubin. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):75-77.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
EDITORIAL
Anju Jain

Artificial Intelligence

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 293]


ABSTRACT

The natural intelligence is limited as the capacity of human brain is limited to ten thousand million binary digits. According to the father of artificial intelligence, John McCaarthy, it is “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the study and developments of intelligent machines and software that can reason, learn, gather knowledge, communicate, manipulate and perceive the objects. Artificial intelligence is different from psychology because of its emphasis on computation and is different from computer science because of its emphasis on perception, reasoning and action. It makes machines smarter and more useful


 
Research Article
Anil K Munta, Vijay Raghavan, Senthil Kumar, Rama M Gorle, Shaik J Basha

Cardiac Biomarkers and their Importance in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia and Acute Myocardial Infarction

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:78-84][No of Hits : 288]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Myocardial ischemia and acute myocardial infarction are important episodes of cardiac ailments. Cardiac biomarkers are a growing area of interest, constantly evolving and presenting potential promises diagnostically to supplement the instrumental techniques. They play a vital role in every stage of sequel of cardiac ailment by contributing to the diagnosis and differentiating the conditions.

Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic significance of emerging cardiac biomarkers during myocardial ischemia and infarction (AMI) and to construct a definitive pattern shift of markers in ischemia versus infarction in uncomplicated cases, hence the predictive element.

Materials and methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, three groups i.e. control (n = 33), ischemia (n = 38), and infarction (42) of either sex with an age group of 70 were included. The cardiac parameters, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatine kinase (CK), high sensitive cardiac troponin I (hscTnI), N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NTpro-BNP), myoglobin, and heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) analyses were carried out for their sensitivity and specificity.

Results: All the parameters in infarction were significantly raised when compared with the control group. In ischemia, the markers NTproBNP, hscTnI, and IMA and in infarction, the NTproBNP, hscTnI, and H-FABP showed more area under the curve.

Conclusion: The markers exhibited different pattern shift in ischemia and infarction. The combination of hscTnI, NTproBNP, and IMA would increase the sensitivity in the detection of ischemia. In case of AMI, the H-FABP in the early stages, and NTproBNP, hscTnI, IMA, and CKMB in the later stages of ACS contribute immensely for the diagnosis.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Infarction, Ischemia, Multi markers, Sensitivity, Specificity.

How to cite this article: Munta AK, Raghavan V, Kumar S, Gorle RM, Basha SJ. Cardiac Biomarkers and their Importance in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia and Acute Myocardial Infarction. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):78-84.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Swati Rajput, Shilpa Jain

Is Autoverification of Reports the Need of the Hour in Clinical Chemistry Laboratory?

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:56-60][No of Hits : 272]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Clinical laboratories need to respond to the challenges of reducing manpower and decreasing the turnaround time by simplifying the process of report release. This can be achieved by building an autoverification (AV) system in the clinical chemistry laboratory.

Aims and objectives:
• To establish the criteria for AV.
• To know the proportion of tests or the sample load which is autoverifiable.
• To compare advantages and disadvantages of AV.

Materials and methods: A descriptive observational study was conducted on test results in clinical chemistry laboratory of Sir Sayajirao General Hospital and Medical College, Vadodara, India, from April 15 to July 15, 2016. At the end of the day, all reports were analyzed and the ones autoverifiable along with their percentage were calculated.

Results and observations: In our laboratory, percentage of autoverifiable reports was found to be between 71 and 89% for various parameters.

Conclusion: Although AV is a complex task, the outcome is absolutely worth the effort. Autoverification, if properly integrated into laboratory information system (LIS), is very fast as compared with the manual verification done by skilled laboratory medical biochemists. Implementation of AV not only decreases the turnaround time but also leads to more consistent verification of test results as all results go through the same process before being released.

Keywords: Autoverification, Laboratory information system, Middleware design, Quality control.

How to cite this article: Rajput S, Jain S. Is Autoverification of Reports the Need of the Hour in Clinical Chemistry Laboratory? Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):56-60.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Udaya Kumari Ganapathy, Bhuvaneswari Rajendran

Effect of Apolipoprotein A1 Genetic Variants at G-75A (Promoter Region) on Lipid Parameters in Acute Myocardial Infarction

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:50-55][No of Hits : 269]


ABSTRACT

This study aimed to find an association between G-75A sequence variations in the promoter region of apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1) gene with respect to myocardial infarction (MI) and serum lipid profile. Fifty-two MI cases and 52 age-, gender-, and risk factor-matched controls were included in this study. Fasting venous blood was collected from each patient and baseline investigations, lipid profile, and polymorphic studies were done. Genotype frequency distribution between cases and controls was compared by chi-square test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to know the relationship between fasting serum lipid variables with the genotype distribution. Genotypes across the cases and control reveal that “GG” homozygous genotype was higher among cases and “GA” genotype seen more in controls, AA approximately equal among cases and controls. But the difference was statistically insignificant. “G” allele was higher among cases (0.75) than among controls (0.69) and frequency of “A” allele was higher among controls (0.30) than among cases (0.25). In GA genotype, mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL), APO-A1 were high and low APO-B/APO-A1 ratio as compared with GG genotype. But there were no statistically significant differences between G allele and A allele carriers for any lipid variables. There were no statistically significant differences across genotype as well as lipid variables in G-75A (promoter) region of APO-A1 gene for the development of MI.

Keywords: Alleles, APO A1 gene, Genotypes, Lipid variables, Myocardial infarction.

How to cite this article: Ganapathy UK, Rajendran B. Effect of Apolipoprotein A1 Genetic Variants at G-75A (Promoter Region) on Lipid Parameters in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):50-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Velu Malarkodi, Mala Malathi

A Hospital-based Study of Renal Function Tests in Chronic Alcoholics

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:22-25][No of Hits : 262]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The purpose of the study is to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulae, and to estimate renal parameters including electrolytes in chronic alcoholics and compare all the parameters with normal controls.

Materials and methods: A total of 50 male alcoholics were taken for the study on admission to the deaddiction center in Father Muller Medical College and Hospital. All the serum parameters were analyzed in auto analyzer Cobas c 311, and qualitative analysis of urine was done using dipsticks. Statistical evaluation was done using Student’s t-test and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient.

Results: The mean estimated GFR (eGFR) in alcoholics of our study was slightly increased with an increase in 32% of alcoholics. A significant negative correlation of eGFR with age (p = 0.027) and urea (p = 0.039) was seen. There was a significant decrease in the levels of urea (p = -0.022) and potassium (p = -0.008). There was a mean increase in uric acid and decrease in phosphate levels. Qualitative analysis of urine showed proteinuria and hematuria in alcoholics with eGFR < 110.

Conclusion: The study showed a spectrum of variation in the renal parameters assayed, with a significant decrease in urea and potassium levels. Validation of the findings by large-scale cohort studies is needed.

Clinical significance: There is a significant decrease in the renal function with variations in electrolytes and a decrease in phosphate levels. Some cases also had proteinuria and hematuria, indicating progress toward chronic renal disease.

Keywords: Chronic alcoholism, Chronic renal disease, Estimated glomerular filtration rate, Modification of diet in renal disease.

How to cite this article: Malarkodi V, Malathi M. A Hospitalbased Study of Renal Function Tests in Chronic Alcoholics. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):22-25.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Sandeep S Soam, Thokchom O Singh, Sonali Chaturvedi, Gautam Sarkar

A Study on Association of Degree of Physical Exercise and Plasma 25-(OH) Vitamin D Levels

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:90-93][No of Hits : 219]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine whether vitamin D deficiency is related to the degree of physical activity or not. Materials and methods: A total of 113 Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students of the same batch aged 17 to 21 years (59 boys and 54 girls) were included in this case-control study. Levels of physical activity were determined using a self-prepared questionnaire.

Results: According to vitamin D grading, only 19 (16.8%) students were in normal category, rest of them were either in deficient (69.9%) or in insufficiency (13.3%) category.
Age-matched comparisons between case group and control group revealed that those physically active had higher levels of vitamin D as compared with those with lower physical activity.

Conclusion: Plasma vitamin D deficiency was prevalent even in apparently healthy young individuals. In the case group (who are physically active), the mean of serum vitamin D level was significantly higher (23 ng/dL) than the control group (10.5 ng/dL). Serum vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in females.

Clinical significance: This study clearly shows that the increased physical activity, especially in sunlight, among individuals should be encouraged not only at home but also at their school and workplace to promote a more active lifestyle that will counteract not only vitamin D deficiency but other benefits as well.

Keywords: MBBS students, Physical activity, Vitamin D.

How to cite this article: Soam SS, Singh TO, Chaturvedi S, Sarkar G. A Study on Association of Degree of Physical Exercise and Plasma 25-(OH) Vitamin D Levels. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):90-93.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Anurag Yadav, Shailaja A Katti, Mala Malathi

Cerebrospinal Fluid Bioprofiling.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:1] [Pages:93] [Pages No:47-49][No of Hits : 216]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Meningitis is one of the most serious health issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines as inflammation of the meninges, the covering of brain, and spinal cord. Most common cause is by infection. It is always reported with very aggressive and devastating outcome on health and continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The current study is focused on bioprofiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which can be aided for early diagnosis of meningitis and helpful for differentiating meningitis from nonmeningitis for deciding treatment regimen by the treating clinician.

Objective: To study the biochemical parameters in meningitis patients and compare CSF bioprofile.

Materials and methods: It is an observational analytical study with a total of 60 subjects aged between 18 and 60 years, conducted in Father Muller Medical College Hospital, Mangaluru, for a duration of 3 months, after obtaining clearance from the institutional ethics committee. The samples sent for the analysis to the clinical biochemistry laboratory were collected and the same were used for the study after obtaining the informed consent from the patient. The traumatic samples and systemic disorder patient samples were excluded form the study. The parameters analyzed were: CSF C-reactive protein (CRP), CSF electrolytes, CSF aspartate transaminase (AST), and CSF lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) apart from the routine CSF protein and glucose in both group I (meningitis) and group II (nonmeningitis).

Results: The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23, with the significance value of 0.05. The mean of the CSF CRP was 2.0 ± 1.12 in group I compared with group II 0.09 ± 0.15; CSF AST was 17.42 ± 6.24, 5.1 ± 3.8 in groups I and II respectively; and CSF LDH was 211.1 ± 49.0, 23.71 ± 10.29 in groups I and II respectively, with p-value < 0.001 (highly significant).

Conclusion: The CSF CRP was found to be increased in patients with meningitis compared with the negative CSF, and the significant increase in the CSF AST and LDH; this knowledge can help to aid the routine CSF protein and glucose to differentiate the meningitis before the result of the culture is reported for deciding the treatment regimen.

Keywords: Aspartate transaminase, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cerebrospinal fluid C-reactive protein, Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase.

How to cite this article: Yadav A, Katti SA, Malathi M. Cerebrospinal Fluid Bioprofiling. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(1):47-49.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Meghana K Padwal, Annapurna V Raichurkar, Rajani R Melinkeri

Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients of Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis: A Need to Redefine Cutoff for Iron/Erythropoietin Therapy

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:95-99][No of Hits : 137]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anemia is the common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that mainly affects patients on hemodialysis therapy. The most precise tool to evaluate body iron stores is the measurement of serum ferritin levels. However, serum ferritin is also an acute phase reactant, and its levels may be influenced by inflammation.

Objectives: (1) To measure serum ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the study group; (2) To correlate the levels of serum ferritin and CRP in patients on hemodialysis; (3) To establish a cutoff value for serum ferritin in patients of CKD on hemodialysis receiving Iron/EPO therapy.

Materials and methods: The study participants (n = 240) were divided into three groups as group I: Total 80 cases of CKD on hemodialysis receiving iron/erythropoietin ( EPO) therapy, Group II: Total 80 cases of CKD on hemodialysis not receiving iron/erythropoietin (EPO) therapy, and Group III: Age and gender-matched 80 healthy controls. Estimation of serum ferritin was done by automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) and CRP by immunoturbidimetric technique.

Results: We observed a statistically significant rise in serum ferritin Group I (1957.6 ± 714.1), Group II (1063.5 ± 478.6) as compared to Group III (101.21 ± 60.29) and CRP levels in group I (104.6 ± 70.8) as compared to group II(74.9 ± 55.8) and (3.7 ± 0.9) (p < 0.005).There is a significant positive correlation between ferritin and CRP (p < 0.005).

Conclusion: High ferritin levels can be because of both increased iron stores and inflammation which may be associated with erythropoietin resistance, malnutrition, and increased mortality. A cutoff value of ferritin needs to be established for better interpretation.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, C-reactive protein, Ferritin, Hemodialysis, Inflammation, Iron/erythropoietin (EPO) therapy.

How to cite this article: Padwal MK, Raichurkar AV, Melinkeri RR. Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients of Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis: A Need to Redefine Cutoff for Iron/Erythropoietin Therapy. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):95-99.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sukanya Singh, Lalna R Takale, Mona Tilak

Antenatal Detection of Hemoglobinopathies using Red Blood Cells Indices for Screening

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:100-104][No of Hits : 136]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders because of abnormalities in hemoglobin synthesis or structure. Thalassemia and sickle cell anemias are the most prevalent hemoglobinopathies and a national health burden. To reduce this burden, detecting them in the carrier stage is crucial. The health of pregnant women determines the future of the progeny. Hence identifying these disorders during the antenatal period is necessary to take the appropriate measures. Complete blood count (CBC) and peripheral smear are routinely done investigations during antenatal check up. Red blood cell (RBC) indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) can be used for initial screening, followed by electrophoresis for detecting these hemoglobinopathies.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies during antenatal period using red blood cell indices for screening.

Materials and methodology: The study included 80 pregnant women whose CBC revealed MCV ≤ 80 fL, MCH ≤ 27 pg and microcytic hypochromic picture on peripheral smear. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was done to detect hemoglobinopathies.

Results: Elevated HbA2 fraction (> 3.5%) was found in 5 (6.25%) women suggestive of β-thalassemia trait. HbA and HbS bands were present in 3 (3.75%) subjects suggestive of sickle cell trait.

Conclusion: Red blood cell (RBC) indices, MCV and MCH, can be used for initial screening of hemoglobinopathies followed by more confirmatory methods (electrophoresis). Detection of these hemoglobin disorders in the carrier stage would thus be possible.

Clinical significance: Simple screening methods can reduce the incidence of the most prevalent hemoglobinopathies (β-thalassemia trait and sickle cell trait/disease) during antenatal care.

Keywords: Antenatal, β-thalassemia trait, Red blood cell indices, Sickle cell disease/trait.

How to cite this article: Singh S, Takale LR, Tilak M. Antenatal Detection of Hemoglobinopathies using Red Blood Cells Indices for Screening. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):100-104.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Mrinal Gupta, Navanil Roy

Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Preeclampsia: A Clinical Study

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:105-107][No of Hits : 128]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Preeclampsia is a disorder marked by the onset of hypertension and a significant amount of protein in the urine which begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Aim and objectives: To evaluate the role of serum sodium and potassium levels as a predisposing factor in the etiology of preeclampsia in pregnant women living in Bhilai, Chhattisgarh.

Material and methods: It was a retrospective cross-sectional study, conducted in the Department of Biochemistry at Shri Shankracharya Institute of Medical Science and Hospital, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh a tertiary care institute.

Results: The mean serum sodium level in preeclamptics was 123.9 ± 3.03 mmol/L and in normotensives was 140.6 ± 1.73 mmol/L which was statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). The mean serum potassium levels in preeclamptics were 2.49 ± 0.23 mmol/L and in normotensives was 3.96 ± 0.32 mmol/L which was statistically significant (p-value < 0.05).

Conclusion: Serum sodium level was observed to be reduced in preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant women. Early diagnosis and counseling of preeclampsia should be done at regular intervals for such cases to prevent any antenatal complications.

Keywords: Antenatal care, Hypertension, Preeclampsia.

How to cite this article: Gupta M, Roy N. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Preeclampsia: A Clinical Study. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):105-107.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sujesh Kumar N, Sajitha Krishnan

Comparison of Gamma-glutamyl Transferase and Troponin-I Levels in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:114-119][No of Hits : 107]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is the predominant cause of acute coronary syndrome, and is usually associated with rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque resulting in the formation of partial or complete thrombosis of the coronary artery. The main objective of the study is to compare the levels of biochemical marker of atherosclerosis-gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and sensitive marker of myocardial necrosis-cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Materials and methods: The design was a prospective casecontrol study where a total of 161 patients, 110 ACS patients and 51 control subjects with the age group of 30 to 80 years were enrolled for the study. GGT was estimated by kinetic colour test using Beckman Coulter AU2700 analyser. Troponin-I was estimated by chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay using Abbott ARCHITECT system.

Results: The mean GGT levels of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina (UA) subgroups were 91.58, 84.12 and 30.46 U/L respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) when compared with control subjects. The mean Troponin-I levels of STEMI, NSTEMI and UA subgroups were 14.31, 4.68 and 0.02 ng/mL respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) when compared with control subjects. Correlation between GGT and Troponin-I done using Spearman’s Rho coefficient correlation test showed a positive correlation between GGT and Troponin-I in ACS patients.

Conclusion: Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level elevates as an indicator of increased oxidative stress in patients with coronary artery disease who are not alcoholic and have no liver disease. The strong correlation between GGT and Troponin-I complement the usefulness of gamma-glutamyl transferase for predicting troponin positivity in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), Gammaglutamyltrans- ferase (GGT), Myocardial infarction, Troponin-I atherosclerosis.

How to cite this article: Kumar SN, Krishnan S. Comparison of Gamma-glutamyl Transferase and Troponin-I Levels in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):114-119.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Hemantha Kumara DS, Gurupadappa K

Correlation of Serum Cholinesterase with Lipid Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in McGann Teaching Hospital, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India.

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:153-156][No of Hits : 101]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a cluster of conditions categorized by longstanding hyperglycemia accompanying with disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism due to absolute/relative deficiency of insulin secretion and/or its action. Serum cholinesterase is an enzyme, which has been associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardio, and vascular disease and also it has a role in the metabolism of lipoproteins. Few studies showed that serum cholinesterase activity has been positively’ correlated with lipid indices and blood lipoprotein levels.

Aim and objectives: To estimate serum cholinesterase levels in clinically diagnosed type 2 DM patients and to evaluate the correlation between true cholinesterase level and lipid indices in the type II diabetes patients.

Materials and methods: Total 120 subjects were involved in this study. Out of which 60 were clinically diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus cases, and 60 were age and sex-matched healthy controls. Serum cholinesterase enzyme activity, fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profile and indices analysis done in event-eelated brain activation (ERBA) autoanalyzer. Statistical data analysis was performed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 19.2 software.

Results: The enzyme cholinesterase activity levels raised in cases compared to healthy controls. The enzyme cholinesterase levels in cases revealed 9576 ± 1542.78 (IU/L) and in controls was 6783.9 ± 798.98 (IU/L). The enzyme cholinesterase showed a positive correlation with every lipid indices namely total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and negative correlation with HDL-C in cases as compared to healthy controls.

Conclusion: The outcome of our study showed that serum (true) cholinesterase level may assist as a budding risk assessment indicator of cardiovascular disease in type 2 DM.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Fasting blood glucose, Lipid indices, Serum cholinesterase, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

How to cite this article: Kumara HDS, Gurupadappa K. Correlation of Serum Cholinesterase with Lipid Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in McGann Teaching Hospital, Shimoga, Karnataka, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2): 153-156.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Ravibabu Kalahasthi, Tapu Barman

Serum High Sensitivity-C-reactive Protein and Hs-CRP/albumin Ratio in Workers Exposed to Lead from Lead-battery Manufacturing Process

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:120-125][No of Hits : 99]


ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study assessed the serum high sensitivity- C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and Hs-CRP/albumin ratio of workers exposed to lead (Pb) from Pb-battery manufacturing process with the use of center for disease control and prevention (CDC)/american hospital association (AHA) recommended risk categories of serum Hs-CRP and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) to examine the diagnostic accuracy.

Materials and methods: This study involved a total of 256 subjects, including both study and control. The study group consists of 176 workers involved in Pb-battery manufacturing process. Control group consists of 80 office workers with no occupational exposure to Pb. Blood lead levels (BLLs) in the study and control groups were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum Hs-CRP concentration was determined using the latex turbidimetric immunoassay method. Serum albumin concentration was measured by using the bromo-cresol green (BCG) method. The serum Hs-CRP/albumin ratio was calculated by dividing the serum Hs-CRP by the serum albumin. Analysis of data was done by using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS), version 20.0.

Results: The mean levels of serum Hs-CRP and Hs-CRP/ albumin ratio were shown significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. The abnormal frequency distribution of serum Hs-CRP and Hs-CRP/albumin ratio among study group found significantly higher than in control. Spearmen correlation coefficients (r) was found a positive and significant association between BLLs and serum Hs-CRP (r = 0.190) and Hs-CRP/albumin ratio (r = 0.193). Area under the curve (AUC) of ROC values among the study group noted as 0.465 (95% of CI = 0.393-0.537, p = 0.366) for serum albumin, 0.601(95% of CI = 0.526-0.675, p = 0.010) for serum Hs-CRP and 0.598 (95% of CI = 0.524-0.672, P = 0.012) for Hs-CRP/ albumin ratio.

Conclusion: The levels of Hs-CRP and Hs-CRP/albumin ratio were significantly increased in the study group as compared to the control and reduction of Pb-exposure is needed to avoid the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Blood lead, CDC/AHA risk categories of serum Hs-CRP, Hs-CRP/albumin ratio, Pb-exposure, ROC Curve.

How to cite this article: Kalahasthi R, Barman T. Serum High Sensitivity-C-reactive Protein and Hs-CRP/albumin Ratio in Workers Exposed to Lead from Lead-battery Manufacturing Process. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):120-125.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
EDITORIAL
Anju Jain

Novel Healthcare Initiatives and the Challenges Ahead

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:iv-v][No of Hits : 97]


ABSTRACT

In a densely populated country like India, healthcare has always remained a tense situation in healthcare. Our nation is currently undergoing a state of health transition wherein infectious diseases continue to pose a major threat. At the same time, chronic noncommunicable diseases like diabetes and cancer are on a “never seen before” upsurge. This is being powered not only by the socioeconomic, demographic and environmental changes but also by factors such as urbanization and sedentary yet stressful lifestyles.


 
Review Article
Nilesh Chandra, Mohit Mehndiratta, Seema Garg, Dinesh Puri

Current State of Medical Education in India: A Perspective

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:157-159][No of Hits : 96]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Advances in biochemical sciences have led to a significant progress in medical treatment. However, not much change has been made in the medical school curricula.

Current teaching practices and lacunae: Medical schools follow didactic teaching. Policy makers hark on the pedagogical skills of the medical educators. However, one should talk about the “andragogical skills” of a medical educator. Adults approach learning in a way fundamentally different from children. Our country is still far away from fully adopting innovative teaching methods for medical education. There is absence of strong teacher-training programs.

The way forward: Regulatory body for medical education has emphasized need based curriculum. Large scale training of the faculties of all medical colleges has been initiated. However, the scope and pace of all such activities is probably insufficient. Consideration should be given to shift towards andragogical approach, robust teacher-training programs and earnestly implementing innovative teaching methodologies for medical education.

Key words: Andragogy, Didactic teaching, Medical education, Medical Curriculum, Innovative teaching methodologies, Teacher training program.

How to cite this article: Chandra N, Mehndiratta M, Garg S, Puri D. Current State of Medical Education in India: A Perspective. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):157-159.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Hemantha Kumara DS, Muralidhara Krishna CS, HL Vishwanath

A Comparative Study in Assessing the Usefulness of Serum Cholinesterase, High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein with Liver Function Tests in Alcoholic Liver Disease

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:147-152][No of Hits : 88]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chronic alcohol ingestion is one of the major causes of liver disease. The pathology of alcoholic liver disease consists of three major lesions (1) fatty liver; (2) alcoholic hepatitis; and (3) cirrhosis. Fatty liver is present in > 90% of binge and chronic drinkers with a smaller percentage of heavy drinkers progressing to alcoholic hepatitis thought to be a precursor to cirrhosis. A lot of studies have been conducted in the past but requires further studies to prove its usefulness in the diagnosis of liver diseases. The present study has been planned to find out the use of assay of serum cholinesterase and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.

Materials and methods: Thirty male cases diagnosed with the alcoholic liver disease were compared with 30 male normal subjects as controls and 30 male non-alcoholic liver disease patients as an additional study group. The diagnosis was based on interview and questionnaire, clinical signs of liver disease and supporting laboratory tests [bilirubin, total protein, serum albumin, albumin:globulin (A:G), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)] and ultrasound.

Results and discussion: The study showed deranged liver function tests in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients compared to controls and normal liver function tests in controls. The serum cholinesterase levels were significantly decreased in alcoholic cirrhosis patients (2112.43 ± 1195.94) compared to non-alcoholic cirrhosis (4004.73 ± 971.03) patients with p-value < 0.001 whereas hs-CRP levels were significantly increased in non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients (1.79 ± 0.28) compared to alcoholic cirrhosis patients (1.23 ± 0.42) with p-value < 0.001.

Conclusion: To conclude, the marked decrease in serum cholinesterase in alcoholic cirrhosis patients suggest that its activity might be a specific indicator of liver dysfunction and may be used for the diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis patients and the hs-CRP can be used as a strong predictor of non-alcoholic cirrhosis.

Keywords: Alcoholic cirrhosis, Hs-CRP, Non-alcoholic cirrhosis, Serum Cholinesterase.

How to cite this article: Kumara HDS, Krishna MCS, Vishwanath HL. A Comparative Study in Assessing the Usefulness of Serum Cholinesterase, High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein with Liver Function Tests in Alcoholic Liver Disease. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):147-152.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Prerna Bansal, I Anand Shaker, Anupam K Bansal, G G Kaushik

Assessment of inflammatory Markers in Preeclampsia

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:138-142][No of Hits : 88]


ABSTRACT

Aim: Pregnancies, including preeclampsia, are low-grade systemic inflammation which has been associated with complications. Endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia is accompanied by elevated levels of inflammatory markers and cytokines such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Our aim in this study is to assess the levels of these above markers in preeclampsia and to predict its severity.

Materials and methods: A case-control study was performed on 100 pregnant women with preeclampsia as cases (50 mild and 50 severe) as per clinical guidelines and 50 healthy pregnant women as controls. They were all age and parity-matched primigravidas at the third trimester of pregnancy.

Results: Significantly increased (p < 0.001) serum levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-10 were found in cases of mild and severe preeclamptic when compared to controls. In severe preeclamptics, all these parameters were also found highly significant in comparison to mild.

Conclusion and clinical significance: The observed high levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, and IL-10 in preeclamptic women indicate that these markers can be used in identifying the severity of preeclampsia and it can help the clinician in their diagnosis, treatment, and management.

Keywords: High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin- 10 (IL-10), Preeclampsia, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).

How to cite this article: Bansal P, Shaker IA, Bansal AK, Kaushik GG. Assessment of Inflammatory Markers in Preeclampsia. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):138-142.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Veerabhadra Goud GK, Dinesh Javarappa

Correlation of Protein Carbonyl and Protein Thiols in Oxidative Stress-induced Senescence of Red Blood Cell Membrane in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:143-146][No of Hits : 84]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrine dysfunction, which is associated with metabolic disease. Wherein chronic hyperglycemia presets the oxidative process which in turn biochemically leads to advanced glycation. The aim is to study the changes caused by oxidative stress upon the red blood cell (RBC) membrane composition by protein carbonyl and protein thiols in type 2 DM (T2DM) in comparison with that of controls.

Materials and methods: The study includes two groups, consists of 100 cases of T2DM and 100 healthy subjects as controls. Blood samples were collected under strict aseptic precautions as per the criteria and estimation of fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), protein carbonyl with RBC membrane ghost preparation and estimation of protein thiols were done.

Results: It was found that there was significant increase of protein carbonyl in cases (1.20 ± 0.08), in comparison to normal controls (0.90 ± 0.06) with a statistical significance of (p < 0.001) along with Protein thiols of RBC membrane which was significantly decreased (1.42 ± 0.10) in cases in comparison to normal controls. (2.12 ± 0.12) with a statistical significance of (p < 0.001). In our study, the positive correlation of protein carbonyl and protein thiols was established with 74% of cases of type 2 DM falling into a HbA1C control group of 7 to 8% indicating the increased protein carbonyl and decreased protein thiols are early indicators of progressive diabetic changes.

Conclusion: Changes in RBC membrane of persons with T2DM acts as an early indicator by means of an increase in protein carbonyl and decrease in protein thiols, and this will further lead to progressive diabetic changes.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus (DM), Oxidative stress, Protein carbonyl, Protein thiols, Reactive oxygen species.

How to cite this article: Goud GKV, Javarappa D. Correlation of Protein Carbonyl and Protein Thiols in Oxidative Stress-induced Senescence of Red Blood Cell Membrane in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):143-146.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Siva P Palem

Effect of Insulin Therapy on Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects without any Complications

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:132-137][No of Hits : 83]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: As we know endothelial dysfunction is an initial stage of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Hypoglycaemic drugs have shown a beneficial effect on endothelial function. Insulin is a regulator hormone for endothelial function in vessels. But, there was a controversial report on the effect of exogenous insulin on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes subjects.

Aim and objectives: The study has been designed to observe the effect of insulin therapy on endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic subjects without any complications.

Materials and methods: This Study include 120 Subjects (60-Diabetics and 60-Healthy Controls). MDA was manually estimated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method and anti-oxidant capacity was estimated as FRAP.19 NO was measured by using kinetic cadmium reduction method.

Result: Significantly high level of body mass index (BMI) was identified in insulin-treated subjects than subjects with hypoglycemic drugs and healthy controls. Nitric oxide (NO) has shown significantly lower in insulin-treated subjects compared to subjects with hypoglycemic drugs and healthy controls. There was no sign in the levels of lipid profile and oxidative stress in between two treatment groups.

Conclusion: Significant effect of insulin therapy was observed on endothelial dysfunction in type 2 DM. Exogenous insulin itself may cause endothelial dysfunction by hyperinsulinemia because of a high-fat diet or high dosage of insulin.

Keywords: Clinical biochemistry, DM, Endothelial dysfunction.

How to cite this article: Siva P Palem. Effect of Insulin Therapy on Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects without any Complications. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):132-137.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Monika Garg, Anju Jain, Binita Goswami, Manju Puri

Study of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ Pro12Ala Polymorphism in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:126-131][No of Hits : 82]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and its polymorphisms have an important role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pathogenesis of which concentrates mainly around insulin resistance.

Aims and objectives: To identify PPAR-γ Pro12Ala Polymorphism in subjects with PCOS and controls along with an estimation of PPARγ levels and to correlate these with biochemical and anthropometric parameters of insulin resistance.

Materials and methods: A hospital-based case control study was conducted in 50 diagnosed cases of PCOS (15 to 45 years of age), as per revised Rotterdam criteria along with 50 age-matched healthy controls. PPAR-γ levels were estimated using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polymorphism was detected through DNA extraction from whole blood followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 employing independent sample t-test for intergroup comparison of means and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for correlation analysis. Categorical data analysis for polymorphism was done using chi-square test. ROC analysis was done for comparison between various markers.

Results and conclusion: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) Pro12Ala polymorphism analysis revealed a higher proportion of Pro/Pro homozygotes (78%) in contrast to a lower proportion of Pro/Ala heterozygotes (22%) in cases. Also, Pro/Pro homozygotes were associated with a higher proportion of insulin resistance (86.7%) and obesity (83.8%) as compared to Pro/Ala heterozygotes in PCOS cases. PPAR-γ levels were significantly reduced in cases [13.16 (11.78-17.08) ng/mL] as compared to controls [16.05 (12.07-33.0) ng/mL]. This strengthens the fact that insulin sensitivity is related to enhanced PPAR-γ expression. ROC analysis revealed PPAR-γ to be a better indicator of PCOS (AUC = 0.605). To conclude, this study is suggestive of a protective role of Pro/Ala (CG) heterozygotes in PCOS and their possible association with insulin resistance and obesity.

Keywords: Insulin resistance, Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), PPAR-γ polymorphism.

How to cite this article: Garg M, Jain A, Goswami B, Puri M. Study of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ Pro12Ala Polymorphism in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):126-131.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Ferdous A Jabir, Sundus K Hamzah

SOX17 and RASSAF1A Promoters Methylation in Circulation Tumor Cell and Cell Free DNA Isolated from Plasma in Breast Cancer

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:22 ] [Number:2] [Pages:64] [Pages No:108-113][No of Hits : 70]


ABSTRACT

Purpose: The study was to evaluate SOX17, and RASSEF 1A promoters methylation levels in patients with malignant breast tumors compared with healthy women.

Materials and methods: Fifty women with breast cancer (range 26 to 75 years) were included in this study. They were admitted at Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Iraq, compared with 25 women as the control. We obtained plasma samples from 50 patients (breast cancer) stages II, III, IV and normal (healthy women). Cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (cfDNA) extracted and methylation analysis for SOX17 and RASSEF1A gene.

Results: We found different methylation pattern of the RASSEF1A gene in plasma samples between patients with breast cancer and control (p < 0.05) ranging in all cases 30 (60%) and unmethylation in 20 (40%), hyper methylation frequency in all studied cases [13 (44.8%) for II stage, 12 (80%) III stage and 4 (66.6%) IV stage of breast cancer in this study association between the hypermethylation was significant with age ≥ 50 11.4 (71.2%) and < 50 26 (76%)] than normal cases, we found different methylation pattern of the SOX17 gene in plasma samples between patients with breast cancer and control (p < 0.05) ranging in all cases 29 (58%) and unmethylation in 21 (42%),hyper methylation frequency in all studied cases 11 (37.9%) for II stage, 13 (86.6%) III stage and 5 (83.3%) IV stage of breast cancer in this study association between the hyper methylation was significant with age (≥ 50 13 (81.2%) and < 50 23 (67%) than normal cases also this study association between the hypermethylation was significant with menopause (premenopause 6 (66%), post menopause 31 (75.6%) than the control group (0%).

Conclusions: Our data indicate that methylation of the RASSAF1A and SOX17 genes are the frequent event in primary breast cancer and that it plays a major role in the silencing of the expression of this gene during tumor development.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Methylation, RASSAF1A gene, SOX17 gene.

How to cite this article: Jabir FA, Hamzah SK. SOX17 and RASSAF1A Promoters Methylation in Circulation Tumor Cell and Cell Free Deoxyribonucleic Acid Isolated from Plasma in Breast Cancer. Indian J Med Biochem 2018;22(2):108-113.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sangita M Patil, Mangesh Bankar, Ramchandra Padalkar, Abhijit Phatak

Comparative Study of Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Myocardial Infarction with Survival and Myocardial Infarction without Survival

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:106-111][No of Hits : 483]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Because of the varied presentation and associated high mortality, the identification of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) is very critical for patient management and has a bearing on the prognosis. The goal of present study was to correlate the diagnostic value of cardiac biomarkers in MI with survival and MI without survival.

Materials and methods: Diagnostic case-control study was conducted on 110 MI patients presenting to the Emergency Department within 12 hours of acute chest pain, and 120 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers formed the control group. Serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), troponin I (TnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were measured. Statistical software SYSTAT version 12 was used to analyze the data. The results were expressed in mean ± standard deviation. Comparisons of study groups and study groups with control groups were done by applying Z test. Correlation was tested by Student’s t-test at 5% (p = 0.05) and 1% (p = 0.01) level of significance.

Results: Mean levels of serum IMA, TnI, CK-MB, LDH, and AST levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in patients with MI as compared with healthy controls. Serum levels of cardiac biomarkers were significantly elevated (p < 0.01) in MI patients without survival as compared with MI with survival.

Conclusion: The serum levels of biomarkers were increased in MI without survival as compared with MI with survival. These study data prove that these changes might be helpful to obtain a comprehensive view of the infarct size and severity of vascular stenotic lesions.

Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction, Creatine kinase-MB, Ischemia-modified albumin, Myocardial infarction, Troponin I.

How to cite this article: Patil SM, Bankar M, Padalkar R, Phatak A. Comparative Study of Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Myocardial Infarction with Survival and Myocardial Infarction without Survival. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):106-111.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Jitender Prasad, Binita Goswami, Kiran Agarwal, Pravesh Mehra, Shilpa Kumar, Bindiya K Pahuja, Anju Chauhan, Ashok K Ahirwar

Effect of Areca Nut Consumption on Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 Alfa Expression in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:81-85][No of Hits : 455]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem in Southeast Asia, including India. Areca nut chewing is a major health hazard in India, which has been implicated in the etiology of OSCC. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a major transcription factor involved in adaptation under hypoxic condition, a common finding in solid tumors. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different habits including areca nut chewing on HIF-1 expression in patients with OSCC.

Materials and methods: It was a hospital-based observational case-control study. The study comprised 50 histologically proven cases of OSCC and 50 healthy controls. The HIF-1α level was measured by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the blood samples. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20.

Results: The HIF-1α levels were found significantly higher in the patients with areca nut consumption in addition to other addictive habits. Isolated influence could not be discerned as there was only one patient who gave history of only areca nut chewing.

Conclusion: Our findings prove that HIF-1α expression is upregulated by areca nut chewing, which leads to worse prognosis. This calls for widespread awareness programs regarding the deleterious effects of areca nut chewing among the general population.

Keywords: Arecoline, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alfa, Oral squamous cell carcinoma.

How to cite this article: Prasad J, Goswami B, Agarwal K, Mehra P, Kumar S, Pahuja BK, Chauhan A, Ahirwar AK. Effect of Areca Nut Consumption on Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 Alfa Expression in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):81-85.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Archana Nimesh, Vibhuti Agarwal, Seema Garg, Mohit Mehndiratta

Ultraviolet Absorption Spectral Scan and Fluorescence Emission Spectral Scan Analysis: Potential Tests with Diagnostic Utility in Porphyria

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:136-141][No of Hits : 453]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Symptoms of porphyria usually overlap with other clinical conditions, thereby leading to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment, especially when patient presents with uncommon features. An accurate diagnosis of porphyria can be made only when enzyme defects can be detected, which is costly and not easily available. Classically, Ehrlich’s test used to screen porphyria has certain disadvantages too. Hence, we planned this study.

Aim: To develop comparatively simpler diagnostic tests feasible at tertiary care centers to work up porphyria cases.

Materials and methods: A suspected case of porphyria was screened using Ehrlich’s test. Thereafter, patient’s urine and serum samples were analyzed by ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectral scan and fluorescence emission spectral scan using multimode microplate reader and compared against normal controls to validate the results.

Results: The UV absorption spectral scan revealed a small peak at 410 nm for patient’s urine sample, which intensified on acidification. The UV absorption spectral scan for patient’s serum also showed absorbance peak at 405 nm vs normal serum. The fluorescence emission spectral scan of urine and serum of patient revealed a sharp emission peak at 626 nm, which was not present in respective samples of control. Fluorescence emission in patient’s urine sample was 10.5 times more vs normal urine.

Conclusion and clinical significance: Novel methods like UV absorption spectral scan and fluorescence emission spectral scan using patient’s urine and serum samples can be developed as diagnostic tests considering their practicality and affordability. Further, an algorithm formulated based on clinical features and basic lab tests can also identify the type of porphyria.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Porphyria, Porphyria cutanea tarda, Variegate porphyria.

How to cite this article: Nimesh A, Agarwal V, Garg S, Mehndiratta M. Ultraviolet Absorption Spectral Scan and Fluorescence Emission Spectral Scan Analysis: Potential Tests with Diagnostic Utility in Porphyria. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):136-141.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Hettagowdanahally V Rahul, N Asha Rani, Aliya Nusrath

Utility of Serum Paraoxonase Levels with reference to Severity of Organophosphorus Poisoning

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:101-105][No of Hits : 446]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used insecticides for agricultural and domestic purposes. Easy availability and less awareness regarding the toxicity caused by these compounds have resulted in high morbidity and mortality in India. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are required to reduce the mortality rate for which laboratory evaluation plays a vital role, in addition to various clinical scoring systems.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 2 months. Forty clinically diagnosed acute OP poisoning cases admitted in emergency units formed the study subjects. Serum was used for the estimation of cholinesterase and both basal and salt stimulated paraoxonase (PON) activity. Peradeniya organophosphorus poisoning (POP) scale was used as a tool to categorize patients into mild (0-3 score), moderate (4-7 score), and severe (8-11 score) poisoning.

Results: The mean age of the study participants was 31.9 ± 14.4 years. Seventy-five percent of the participants were males and 25% were females. Chlorpyrifos was the most common OP compound consumed by the study participants. There was a significant decrease in the serum cholinesterase activity (p = 0.001) and salt-stimulated PON activity (p = 0.016) as the severity increased. Serum cholinesterase and POP score showed statistically significant negative correlation (p = 0.003). There was a linear positive correlation between serum cholinesterase and serum PON activity, but the correlation was significant only with salt-stimulated PON activity (p = 0.005).

Conclusion: The results suggest that subjects with higher levels of PON activity may have better detoxifying capacity toward OP poisoning.

Keywords: Acute toxicity, Butyrylcholinesterase, Chlorpyrifos, Organophosphorus, Paraoxonase 1.

How to cite this article: Rahul HV, Rani NA, Nusrath A. Utility of Serum Paraoxonase Levels with reference to Severity of Organophosphorus Poisoning. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):101-105.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Siraj A Khan, Krishna M Iyyapu, Kompella SS Sai Baba, Sreekanth Yerram

Study of Parathyroid Hormone as an Independent Risk Marker of Heart Failure.

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:157-161][No of Hits : 437]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by cardiac pump failure with signs and symptoms arising from salt and water retention. Heart failure is associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. Identification of modifiable risk factors may reduce incidence of HF and its complications. The aim of our study is to assess parathyroid hormone (PTH) as a risk marker for HF and its association with severity of HF.

Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 subjects with HF were recruited and they were compared with 60 age- and sex-matched controls. Along with the routine parameters, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), intact PTH, and vitamin D were estimated. The study group was divided into quartiles depending on PTH value.

Results: The median PTH (81.5 pg/mL) and NT-proBNP (3753 pg/ mL) in HF patients are found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared with control subjects. The median vitamin D concentration (18 ng/mL) though low in cases is not statistically significant when compared with controls. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics are compared across the quartiles of PTH. Highest number of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV HF cases are found in highest quartiles of PTH. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high concentration of PTH [odds ratio of 1.1113; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.14; p < 0.0001] and low levels of vitamin D (odds ratio of 1.053; 95% CI 1.0079-1.1009) are significantly associated with HF.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher concentration of PTH is associated with severe form of HF. Vitamin D deficiency is also seen in the study group.

Keywords: Heart failure, Parathyroid hormone, Vitamin D

How to cite this article: Khan SA, Iyyapu KM, Sai Baba KSS, Yerram S. Study of Parathyroid Hormone as an Independent Risk Marker of Heart Failure. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):157-161.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Shazia Arafeen, Madhumita Chatterjee

Study of Oxidative Stress Status in Relation to Glycemic Index Fluctuations in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:49-53][No of Hits : 400]


ABSTRACT

Background: Oxidative stress is characterized by an increased generation of O2-derived molecules called reactive oxygen species that provoke critical, even irreversible, cell injury.

Aim: To evaluate oxidative stress status through measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and to analyze association of changes in MDA status with respect to fluctuations in glycemic control.

Materials and methods: A total of 112 subjects, both males and females, aged above 30 years were enrolled for this study, in which 81 had type II diabetes and 31 were without diabetes. Random blood sugar (RBS) was measured by glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. Serum MDA was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by ion exchange resin method.

Results: The MDA and HbA1c levels were increased in diabetics and were statistically significant. In all the studied groups, MDA was positively correlated with RBS and HbA1c.

Conclusion and clinical significance: The study suggests that MDA should be measured along with routine parameters of disease and the use of redox active antioxidants to tone down MDA levels may be evaluated to contribute in early and improvised clinical management of type II diabetes mellitus and also to delay the development of secondary complications of the disease.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Glycated hemoglobin, Malondialdehyde, Reactive oxygen species, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, Type II diabetes mellitus.

How to cite this article: Arafeen S, Chatterjee M. Study of Oxidative Stress Status in Relation to Glycemic Index Fluctuations in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):49-53.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
P Krushna Kishore, Ipsita Choudhary

Status and Effect of Vitamin D on Microvascular Complication in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:34-37][No of Hits : 400]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vitamin D has a great impact on human health and disease. Recent studies proved that hypovitaminosis D is a possible risk factor for the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. In the present study, we evaluated vitamin D levels and its correlation with the duration of diabetes, sex, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and microvascular complications in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without microvascular complications.

Objectives: To study and correlate vitamin D levels and its relation with duration of diabetes, sex, glycemic control, and microvascular complication in T2DM patients with and without microvascular complications.

Materials and methods: Cross-sectional case-control study of 200 patients (35-70 years) suffering from T2DM was included. The T2DM patients without microvascular complications served as control group. Enrolled subjects underwent complete physical examination to detect the presence of microvascular complications, which includes microfilament tests, detailed fundus examination, urinary microalbumin/creatinine ratio. Fasting blood sugar, HbA1C, and serum vitamin D were also measured by using serum sample.

Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was found to be significantly higher in T2DM patients with microvascular complications (19.54 ± 2.56 vs 28.57 ± 2.93) as compared with T2DM patients without microvascular complications (p < 0.001). Hypovitaminosis D was found to be significantly more in females (60.75%) compared with males (39.96%) in both the study groups (p < 0.0001). Hypovitaminosis D was correlated with glycemic control and prevalence of microvascular complications.

Conclusion: Vitamin D is correlated with glycemic status and sex difference and has a role in pathogenesis of T2DM and its complications.

Keywords: Glycemic control, Microvascular complications, Type II diabetes mellitus, Vitamin D.

How to cite this article: Kishore PK, Choudhary I. Status and Effect of Vitamin D on Microvascular Complication in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2017; 21(1):34-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
EDITORIAL
Anju Jain

INCEPTION TO SILVER JUBILEE—25 YEARS JOURNEY OF ASSOCIATION OF MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTS OF INDIA

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:iv-v][No of Hits : 384]


ABSTRACT

Today as we celebrate the silver Jubilee of our association, looking back through the memory lane of Association of Medical Biochemists of India (AMBI’s) existence over the past twenty five years, the founding members can take real pride in what it is today. It has been long and challenging paths to witness a dream unfold to encourage medical graduate aspirants to specialize in the field of Medical Biochemistry.


 
Original Article
Manjula Singh, Deepshi Thakral, Hemant K Kar, Narayan Rishi, Dipendra K Mitra

Immune Response Profiling of Patients with Anogenital Warts

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:11-16][No of Hits : 369]


ABSTRACT

The incidence of anogenital warts, commonly caused by human papillomavirus (HPV-6 and HPV-11), is increasing worldwide. These infections are frequently associated with relapse, possibly due to weak host immunity. However, the role of cell-mediated immune players in combating infection is not clearly understood till date. Here, we attempted to understand the immune profile among patients with anogenital warts. In this study, we compared the T-helper cell (Th1 and Th2) response in patients with venereal warts due to HPV-6 and HPV-11 infection relative to healthy controls (HCs) in vitro. In the in vitro model, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with HPV peptide 6 or 11, stained for T-cell surface marker and intracellular cytokines (interferon [IFN]-ã and interleukin [IL]-4), and were analyzed by flow cytometry. In the present study, significant decrease was observed in the frequency of IFN-ã T cells as compared with HCs. On the contrary, frequency of T cells expressing IL-4 was significantly increased in the patients. The observed functional skewing of HPV-specific T cells from Th1 to Th2 response in patients indicated suppressed immunity against the HPVs. Findings of our study have potential in the near future for strategizing adjunct immunomodulation approaches with the standard treatment for early remission and prevention of recurrence.

Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Interferon gamma, Interleukin-4, Venereal warts.

How to cite this article: Singh M, Thakral D, Kar HK, Rishi N, Mitra DK. Immune Response Profiling of Patients with Anogenital Warts. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):11-16.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
P Shruthi Rai, Sukanya Shetty, Priya Patil, Roopa Bhandary

Establishment of Reference Intervals of Serum Hepatic Enzymes in Tertiary Care Hospital: A Pilot Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:22-24][No of Hits : 361]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reference intervals are the most common decision- making tools for the interpretation of various biochemical reports. Age, sex, ethnicity, diet, physical, and socioeconomic conditions affect the physiology of population. Hence, it is necessary to set up the reference values that are applicable to a specific population rather than using the reference values established for other population-based studies or from the literature provided by the reagent kit manufacturers.

Aims and objectives: To establish the reference intervals of serum hepatic enzymes in tertiary care hospital.

Materials and methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was done involving 200 subjects. The subjects were randomly selected from the population, which included medical students, health professionals, and those attending different outpatient departments and health camps organized by the hospital for general checkups under health plan scheme. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were estimated by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry-recommended kinetic method and GGT by enzymatic colorimetric method. To obtain reference interval, 97.5th percentile and 2.5th percentile were used.

Results: The results for serum AST and GGT were found to be statistically significant. Hence separate reference intervals for both male and female were set up. Generalized reference intervals were established for serum ALT and ALP levels.

Conclusion: The present study revealed a significant difference in the reference intervals between males and females.

Keywords: Alanine transaminase, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Gamma-glutamyl transferase, Hepatic enzymes, Reference interval.

How to cite this article: Rai PS, Shetty S, Patil P, Bhandary R. Establishment of Reference Intervals of Serum Hepatic Enzymes in Tertiary Care Hospital: A Pilot Study. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):22-24.

Source of support: The authors would like to acknowledge the Indian Council for Medical Research with Ref: No.3/2/May.2015/ PG-Thesis-HRD (1) dated 6/5/2015 for funding this project.

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Srinivas N Chakravarthy, Satish Ramanathan, Smitha Menon, Mathivanan Durairaj

Bisalbuminemia in an African Male with Sickle Cell Disease

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:69-71][No of Hits : 357]


ABSTRACT

Bisalbuminemia is a rare condition characterized by abnormal electrophoretic pattern of serum albumin. There are two types of bisalbuminemia - hereditary and acquired. The acquired type has been reported in chronic renal diseases, pancreatitis, and in patients using beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this case report is to discuss the clinical significance of bisalbuminemia in a 58-year-old African male with sickle cell anemia.

Keywords: Albumin variants, Bisalbuminemia, Sickle cell disease.

How to cite this article: Chakravarthy SN, Ramanathan S, Menon S, Durairaj M. Bisalbuminemia in an African Male with Sickle Cell Disease. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):69-71.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Shubha N Prakash, Jayakumari Shanthakumari, Anitha Devanath

Effect of Sucralose on Glucose Uptake in Rat L6 Myotubes.

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:162-165][No of Hits : 351]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: With growing awareness of the link between diet and health and the problem of obesity, public concern over sugar levels in the diet is forcing a worldwide trend toward cutting down on sugar by using artificial sweeteners (AS).

Aim: To study the effect of increasing concentrations of sucralose (an AS) on glucose uptake in rat L6 myotubes.

Materials and methods: The L6 cell line from American type cell culture (ATCC) was grown in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) and differentiated into myotubes. The wells were exposed to either 0, 1 nM, 1 μM, or 1 mM of sucralose alone or with 10 nM insulin for 24 hours. Glucose uptake was studied after this period.

Results: Significant decrease was seen between the insulinstimulated basal glucose uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake across all the concentrations of sucralose treatment.

Conclusion: Increased concentration of sucralose appears to decrease glucose uptake even on insulin stimulation.

Clinical significance: It may not be beneficial to use sucralose in certain groups of people who have insulin resistance or are prone to it.

Keywords: Artificial sweetener, Glucose uptake, Sucralose.

How to cite this article: Prakash SN, Shanthakumari J, Devanath A. Effect of Sucralose on Glucose Uptake in Rat L6 Myotubes. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):162-165.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Mahendra B Gandhe, Swapnali M Gandhe

Generation of Monospecific Polyclonal Antibodies to Recombinant Filarial Antigen rWbL2 and Evaluation of Its Immunodiagnostic Utility in Filariasis

[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:117-123][No of Hits : 325]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease affecting nearly 120 million people across the world. Filarial antigen detection is a good indicator for mapping new filarial cases and for evaluation of filarial elimination programs as compared with the low sensitivity associated with the direct evidence of microfilaria (Mf) in blood samples. To overcome low sensitivity and night-time blood collection method for parasite detection in filariasis cases, the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized for detection of circulating filarial antigen using monospecific polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant filarial antigen rWbL2. In the present study, the specific antibodies raised against novel recombinant antigens rWbL2 were explored to develop suitable filarial antigen assays. It was possible to come out with a filarial antigen assay that could detect WbL2 or its equivalent antigen with 40% sensitivity (by using mouse anti-WbL2 antibody as capturing antibody), 60% sensitivity (using FSIgG human filarial serum immunoglobulin G as capturing antibody), and 100% specificity. These assays show promise to detect and monitor active filarial infection and thus prove to have potential as a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool in the elimination program.

Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Immunodiagnostic evaluation, Lymphatic filariasis, Recombinant filarial antigen, Wuchereria bancrofti.

How to cite this article: Gandhe MB, Gandhe SM. Generation of Monospecific Polyclonal Antibodies to Recombinant Filarial Antigen rWbL2 and Evaluation of Its Immunodiagnostic Utility in Filariasis. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):117-123.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Akila Prashant, Prashant Vishwanath, Nalini Kotekar, Suma M Nataraj, Caroline Kuruvilla, CS Nagalakshmi, Parveen Doddamani

Systemic Cytokine Response predicts the Outcome of Patients from Mechanical Ventilation

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:5-10][No of Hits : 290]


ABSTRACT

Purpose: Despite the lifesaving potential, mechanical ventilation (MV) imposes a considerable amount of mechanical stress on the lung. Pulmonary and systemic cytokine release due to inflammatory process triggered by MV may give valuable information on patient outcome.

Materials and methods: Thirty patients aged >18 years with acute respiratory distress who required MV were enrolled for the study. Three milliliters of the venous blood was collected immediately after the initiation of MV and at 24 hours. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were estimated using quantitative immunometric sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Based on their outcome from MV, they were divided into two groups: Survivors (group I) and nonsurvivors (group II).

Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 significantly increased in group II (n=13) when compared with group I (n = 17) (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001 respectively) at 24 hours of MV. However, TNF-α did not show any significant difference between the two groups. The IL-6 >111.9 pg/mL at 24 hours of MV increases the probability of mortality by factor 2.40. An increase of IL-6 by 1 pg/mL significantly increases the relative probability of mortality by a factor of 1.004 (95% CI, 1.0003-1.0078, p = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Estimating the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 at 24 hours of connecting the patient to MV will help in predicting the outcome of the patient.

Keywords: Cytokines, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Mechanical ventilation, Tumor necrosis factor-α.

How to cite this article: Prashant A, Vishwanath P, Kotekar N, Nataraj SM, Kuruvilla C, Nagalakshmi CS, Doddamani P. Systemic Cytokine Response predicts the Outcome of Patients from Mechanical Ventilation. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):5-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
AG Thivyah Prabha

Reliable Earlier and Causative Biomarker in newly Diagnosed Hypothyroid Cases—Vitamin D: A Case–control Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:54-57][No of Hits : 246]


ABSTRACT

Background: In Indian population there are 42 million people suffering from hypothyroidism. Hence, even though thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) has been used as the diagnostic marker of hypothyroidism, there arises a need to evaluate an earlier and a causative marker for hypothyroidism and thus it could be a better predictor of the disease in the earlier stages only.

Aims and objectives: The aim of the study is to identify a reliable earlier and one of the causative biomarkers of hypothyroidism.

Materials and methods: This study was conducted in 200 cases of newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and 200 controls of healthy individuals. Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and calcium were measured.

Results: It was observed that vitamin D was significantly decreased in hypothyroid cases. There was a negative correlation between vitamin D and TSH.

Conclusion: Vitamin D being one of the causative factors in thyroid disorders should be included as a routine parameter of analysis in hypothyroid cases and supplementation of vitamin D also to be initiated by the clinicians to avoid the progression to overt hypothyroidism in the newly diagnosed cases.

Keywords: Calcium, Hypothyroidism, Intact parathyroid hormone, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Vitamin D.

How to cite this article: Prabha AGT. Reliable Earlier and Causative Biomarker in newly Diagnosed Hypothyroid Cases– Vitamin D: A Case-control Study. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):54-57.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
EDITORIAL
Anju jain

EDITORIAL

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:iv-v][No of Hits : 244]


ABSTRACT

The word autophagy originates from the Greek words auto-, meaning “self”, and phagein, meaning “to eat”. Thus, autophagy denotes “self-eating”. This concept emerged during the 1960’s, when researchers first observed that the cell could destroy its own contents by enclosing it in membranes, forming sack-like vesicles that were transported to a recycling compartment, called the lysosome, for degradation.


 
Editorial
Anju Jain

Editorial

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:iv][No of Hits : 446]


ABSTRACT

To my Medical Biochemistry Fraternity,
I wish to express my immense pleasure at the trust you have bestowed on me as Editor-in-Chief for this official journal (Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry-IJMB) of our national body namely Association of Medical Biochemists of India (AMBI). I hope to uphold this trust and take our journal to greater heights.


 
Original Research
Yogaraje GC Varadaiah, Akila Prashant, Raghu K Chinnappa, Rakshitha M Nagaraj, Thejashwini, Robinson K Samuel, Devananda Devegowda, Prashant Vishwanath

Evaluation of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting hsp65 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the Detection of Organism in the Sputum Samples

[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:28-33][No of Hits : 438]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The poor sensitivity of conventional smear microscopy and the delay in obtaining Mycobacterium culture results prevent the early diagnosis of Myobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). By using nucleic acid amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR), one may be able to diagnose the disease on the day of arrival of specimen in the laboratory. The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the nested-PCR (nPCR) technique as a rapid and direct molecular method for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis in sputum specimens of patients whose sputum smear was acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative using heat shock protein (hsp65) as the gene target.

Materials and methods: Early morning sputum samples were collected in sterile containers respectively from about 40 suspected patients of pulmonary tuberculosis, attending the outpatient units of JSS Medical College and PKTB Hospital, Mysore and from 20 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Sputum samples were decontaminated by modified Petroff’s method and DNA was isolated using QIAGEN DNA extraction kit. The nPCR was carried out for the detection of MTB using the target gene hsp65.

Results: Nested-PCR showed specific amplification (165bp) of M. tuberculosis in 18 out of 20 sputum AFB positive samples and 9 out of 20 AFB negative samples. None of the healthy controls showed any amplification with nPCR. The nPCR when compared to that of Ziehl-Neelsen staining had a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 77.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 66.6%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.9%. The percentage of false positive was 33.3% and percentage of false negative was 6.1%.

Conclusion: The detection of M. tuberculosis with nPCR in smear negative patients provides the bacteriological data 4 to 8 weeks earlier. A molecular approach, based on the amplification of hsp65 gene by nPCR, showed that there is high probability of the disease being absent when the test is negative because of the high negative predictive value (NPV).

Keywords: Heat shock protein (hsp65), Myobacterium tuberculosis, Nested-polymerase chain reaction, Ziehl-Neelsen staining.

How to cite this article: Varadaiah YGC, Prashant A, Chinnappa RK, Nagaraj RM, Thejashwini, Samuel RK, Devegowda D, Vishwanath P. Evaluation of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting hsp65 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the Detection of Organism in the Sputum Samples. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;1(1):28-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Obituary
Priyanki Baruah

Obituary

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:2] [Pages:121] [Pages No:xiv][No of Hits : 243]


ABSTRACT

Early morning of the 29th July (2016), when I was asleep, suddenly my phone rang up screaming- it was my colleague and friend Dr Kajal whose wet voice broke to me the most unexpected news- our beloved Ray sir was no more. Dr Prakash C. Ray, known to his students popularly as Ray sir, bid us adieu much to our utter dismay, at a ripe age of only 55 years. The news of his demise was very hard for every one of us to digest. With deep grief and sorrow, I want to pay homage to this noble soul with a few words.


 
Award Papers

Award Papers

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:2] [Pages:121] [Pages No:69-72][No of Hits : 234]


ABSTRACT

Altered Matrix Metalloproteinase Dynamics plays a Role in Differential Pathogenesis among Adult Severe Dengue Cases
Debadyuti Sahu, Soundravally Rajendiran, Rahul Dhodapkar, T Kadhiravan, P Narayanan, SR Vijaya Kumar

Relationship of Follicle-stimulating Hormone and Follicle-stimulating Hormone Receptor Polymorphism in Women with Unexplained Infertility
Dipti C Ekka, Anju Jain, Manju Puri

Evaluating the Role of Testosterone and Estradiol in Men with Acute Ischemic Stroke
J Bhadra, S Seth, V Dhupper, M Kulshrestha, HK Aggarwal, J Sen, VS Ghalaut

Assessment of Analytical Performance of Glucose Meter in Pediatric Age Group at a Tertiary Care Referral Hospital
Mohit Vijay Rojekar

Transcobalamin II Gene Variant 776C>G: Association with Serum Homocysteine Levels and Stroke
Parmila Dudi, Anita Rani, Deepa Haldar, Jayeeta Bhadra, Seema Patel, Geeta Kampani

Frequency of FcγRIIIA-V/F Polymorphism in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients with Lupus Nephritis
Sabitha Thummala, Priscilla A Chandran, Prajnya Ranghanathan, Vara Prasad, Ashwin Dalal, NN Sree Devi, M Noorjahan


 
Orations

Orations

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:2] [Pages:121] [Pages No:1-6][No of Hits : 218]


ABSTRACT

Orations

Chintala Sita Devi Oration

Challenges in Biochemistry Teaching for Indian Medical Graduate
Dr Bharti Kawatra Uppal

Ajit Singh Saini Oration
Travel through Time in Clinical Biochemistry: A Personal Experience of 33 Years
Dr Shanthi Naidu Kamatham

Dr S Gopalakrishnan Oration

Molecular Diagnosis of Hemoglobinopathies and Thalassemia
Mauchumi S Pathak, Dulal Kalita, Monalisha S Borah

Dr Akhori Surya Shekhar Sinha Oration

Interferences in Immunoassays
Dr Pragna B Dolia

Dr B Sadasivudu Oration

Curriculum Reforms
Dr Ramesh Pradhan

Dr Sheela Devi M Kodliwadhmath Oration

Insulin Resistance in Acute Ischemic Heart Disease
Udayan Ray


 
Guest Lectures

Guest Lectures

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:2] [Pages:121] [Pages No:7-11][No of Hits : 188]


ABSTRACT

Guest Lectures

Next-generation Sequencing
C Shanmugapriya

Cell Energy Medicine
Dr. Gautam Sarkar

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry or Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Dilemma for Newborn Screening
Pramod Ingale

Human Leukocyte Antigens: Importance in Organ Transplant
D Radhika Chowdary

Role of Inflammation and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Vascular Stability and Coronary Artery Disease
Ritu Singh

Vitamin D Immunity and Immunological Disorders
SK Gupta

Standardization of Serum/Urine Argininosuccinate Levels by Liquid Chromatography Technique: Establishing Urea Cycle Disorders
Vanita Lal, Praveen Sharma, Manish Parakh, Daisy A Khera, Garima Gupta

Multitargeted Agents in Cancer Cell Chemosensitization: What we learned thus far?
Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara


 
Symposia

Symposia

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:20 ] [Number:2] [Pages:121] [Pages No:12-15][No of Hits : 176]


ABSTRACT

Symposium

Reform of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956: NITI Aayog, Government of India, August 7, 2016
Jayashree Bhattacharjee

Modern Approach to UG and PG Training
Jasbinder Kaur

Medical Education Changes in UAE and its Impact on the Education Outcome
BK Manjunatha Goud, Aruna Oinam

Writing a Good Scientific Paper: The Beginning
Anju Jain

Preparation and Review of Manuscript, Bibliography, Plagiarism and Authorship Guidelines
Prashant Vishwanath

Data Considerations in Publishing the Results of a Scientific Study
PVLN Srinivasa Rao

Essentials of Laboratory Risk Management
Anjali Manocha

Guidelines for Method Validation and Verification in Clinical Chemistry
Seema Bhargava

Preanalytical Variables and their Influence on the Quality of Laboratory Results
Moushumi Saikia


 
Guest Lectures

Guest Lectures

[Year:2015] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:153] [Pages No:7-18][No of Hits : 138]


Guest Lectures

Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Prognostic Biomarkers in Infectious Diseases
TD Chugh

Genetic Counseling in Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Ashwin Dalal

Essential Characteristics of a Good Laboratory Information System
Shaileshkumar M Patel

Intracellular Calcium: Its Universal Role as Regulator
Anthony K Campbell

Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Role in Diabetic Complications
Ashok K Tripathi, Diwesh Chawla, Savita Bansal, Rishila Ghosh, Neeru Singh, Pawan Kare, Basu D Banerjee, Sri Venkata Madhu

Why lecture badly?
Dinesh Puri

Job Satisfaction Status and Its Implications among Medical Biochemistry Teachers
Shilpa B Asegaonkar

Quality Assurance in Clinical Laboratories
Neeraj Jain

Sodium and Essential Hypertension
BD Toora

An Insight into Laboratory Viewpoints on Thyroid Function Tests
C Shanmugapriya

The Pesticides: Boon or Bane
Kmds Panag

Biosynthesis and Extraction of Secondary Plant Metabolites
Vidhu Aeri

Cardiac Biomarkers: Feasibility, Utility and Objectivity!
Gurdeep K Bedi

Are We addressing the Learning Style of Students?
Renu Garg

Risk Management in Medical Laboratories
Pramod Ingale

Plasma Dyscrasias: A Paradigm Shift in Diagnosis and Monitoring with Serum Light Chains Assay
Shanthi N Kamatham, Azmathullah Khan, Syed H Ali, BVLN Murthy, Siva S Gorji, Subbaiah, Suryadeep Pratap, P Srikanth, P Rajesh, KT Vijaya, Shailesh Singhi, R Chakravarthi, Vikranth Reddy

Vitamin D Immunity and Immunological Disorders
SK Gupta

Novel Biomarkers of First Trimester Prediction of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension
Ritu Singh

Association of Proinflammatory Milieu and Hypovitaminosis D with Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Anju Jain

Ensuring Analytical Quality
Seema Bhargava

Verification of New Analyte in Clinical Biochemistry
Singla P Bhargava

Root Cause Analysis and Corrective and Preventive Action Management in a Clinical Laboratory
Anjali Manocha


 
Award Papers

Award Papers

[Year:2015] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:153] [Pages No:19-26][No of Hits : 131]


Award Papers

The Effect of Phenytoin Monotherapy on Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Bone Health Markers: A Prospective Study
Aastha Bansal, Kiran Dahiya, Surekha Dabla, Veena S Ghalaut, Richa Goel

Decreased TET1-mediated Hydroxymethylation of Promoter CpG Islands Causes Downregulation of Tight Junction Protein, Claudin-6 in Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells
Ashikh Seethy, Sameer A Guru, Vijay Singh, Radhika Agarwal, Nita Khurana, PN Agarwal, Alpana Saxena, PC Ray

A Novel Method for Keratin Dissolution and Testing
Asha Kumari, Rambhaj Sharma, Veena S Ghalaut

Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene (Ser680Asn) in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Shilpa Kumar, Anju Jain, Binita Goswami, Abha Singh

Study of Serum Osteocalcin and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abhishek Dubey, Chubalemla Longkumer, C Lalrindiki, Victoria Laishram, Santa Naorem, Th Ibetombi Devi

HE4: Are We Looking at a Better Marker? A Prospective Study in Comparison with CA125
Jyotsna Volturi, K Suseela, Sudha Murthy, Sujatha, A Santa, Lavanya

Overexpression of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Diabetes Mellitus Type II can be Related to Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Pathway of Insulin
Yuthika Agrawal, Kiran Chugh, Vipin Goyal

Levels of Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Other Circulating Hormones in Breast Cancer Patients and Influence of Chemotherapy to these Hormonal Levels
Jyoti Bala, Simmi Kharb, Veena S Ghalaut, Shashi Seth, Rakesh Dhankhar

Carboxymethyllysine and Pentosidine: The Advanced Glycation End Products could be Early Predictors of Diabetic Neuropathy
K Madhavi, Priscilla A Chandran, AK Meena, M Noorjahan

Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Hypothyroidism and its Association with Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index
Pallavi Jain, R Devi

Endogenous Cortisol in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Case/Control Study
Himanshu D Kumar, Ashuma Sachdeva, Manisha Nada, Sumit Sachdeva, Sumeet Khanduja, Veena S Ghalaut

Serum Hepcidin Levels in Ulcerative Colitis: Do They Correlate with Anemia and/or Inflammation?
R Jagadish, Joe Varghese, Ebby G Simon, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Molly Jacob


 
Orations

Orations

[Year:2015] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:153] [Pages No:1-6][No of Hits : 110]


Orations

AJIT SINGH SAINI ORATION

Role, Value, and Future of Basic Science Education in Medical Sciences
Bipin Batra

S GOPALAKRISHNAN ORATION

An Anti-inflammatory Nematode Carbohydrate moiety is a putative drug for endotoxemia
Dr B Ravindran

B SADASIVUDU ORATION
Subrata Sinha

(MRS) SHEELA DEVI MALLIKARJUNA KODLIWADHMATH ORATION

The Importance of Ethics in Health Care System
Reena Nayyar

CHINTALA SITA DEVI ORATION

Aging War between Chemistry and Biochemistry
Chandra Prakash

AKHORI S SINHA ORATION

In vitro Proliferation and Characterization of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells
PC Mohapatra



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