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1.  Original Research
Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam
Jadab K Phukan, Gautom K Saharia, Rohini Goswami
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:11-15] [No of Hits : 730]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0003 | FREE


Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a major form of abnormal uterine bleeding, seen in at least 10% of all new outpatient department patients. The thyroid gland is known to play an important role in maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle.

Aims: To assess the thyroid hormone status in apparently euthyroid patients with DUB and to correlate it with incidence of DUB.

Materials and methods: Fifty DUB patients were selected on the basis of clinical history, examination, and relevant investigations. Equal numbers of age-matched women with normal menstrual cycle were taken as controls. Thyroid hormones, viz., thyroidstimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by using Microsoft Excel software.

Results: The most common menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia (48%) followed by metrorrhagia and polymenorrhea (14% each). Hypothyroidism was more prevalent among cases (85.7%) as compared with controls (14.3%). In patients with menorrhagia, 33.3% of patients had hypothyroidism.

Conclusion: Hypothyroidism occurs in DUB patients commonly. There is a need for mandatory thyroid screening in all patients with menstrual irregularities to help in early detection of the cause and treatment of DUB patients to avoid surgery.

Keywords: Assam, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Hypothyroidism, Menorrhagia.

How to cite this article: Phukan JK, Saharia GK, Goswami R. Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):11-15.

Source of support: MD/MS Thesis Grant of Rs 1,50,000/- (Rupees one lakh fifty thousand only) for students of North East region from the Department of Biotechnology under Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.

Conflict of interest: None

2.  Original Research
Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease
PK Patra, PK Khodiar, D Sahu, GK Sahu
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:1-5] [No of Hits : 604]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0001 | FREE


Changes in the level of various biochemical parameters play a significant role in the physiopathology of sickle cell disease (SCD). The aim of this study is to determine the level of urinary micoalbumin and plasma level of ascorbic acid and uric acid in subjects suffering from sickle cell anemia. A total of 30 subjects consisting of both males and females whose age range varied from 10 to 30 years were included in the study. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio invariably increased in all studied subjects as compared with the control subjects. The level of ascorbic acid in the plasma significantly declined in SCD subjects when compared with that of control subjects (p < 0.05). Also, the decrease in level of uric acid in plasma of SCD patients was significant as compared with the control subjects. Significant changes in these biochemical parameters thus could be used as reliable markers in nephropathy in sickle cell patients and thus in the management of the disease.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Microalbuminuria, Nephropathy, Sickle cell disease.

How to cite this article: Patra PK, Khodiar PK, Sahu D, Sahu GK. Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

3.  Original Research
Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Shilpa B Asegaonkar, Ishrat Kareem, Sunita Aghade, Avinash Pagdhune, Anand Thorat, Mangala S Borkar
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:6-10] [No of Hits : 591]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0002 | FREE


Aims: To compare metabolic status of lean vs overweight/ obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and correlate biochemical parameters with anthropometric measures.

Materials and methods: A total of 100 T2DM patients were categorized as lean and overweight/obese according to body mass index (BMI); 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were selected. Anthropometric measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip (W:H) were recorded. Fasting blood samples were assayed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated by Friedewald’s formula and TG: HDL was measured as measure of insulin resistance (IR).

Results: Anthropometric measures of overall (BMI 31.65 ± 5.49, 20.34 ± 2.45 vs 22.29 ± 3.21) and visceral adiposity (WC 91.98 ± 6.8, 75.45 ± 4.34 vs 74.19 ± 3.98 and W:H 0.99 ± 0.12, 0.78 ± 0.21 vs 0.76 ± 0.32) were significantly higher in overweight/ obese (p < 0.05) compared with lean T2DM and controls. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA were significantly raised and HDL decreased in T2DM compared with those of controls. But much higher values were observed in overweight/obese than in lean group. Triglycerides: HDL was significantly higher in obese than in lean patients (4.66 ± 1.89 vs 7.91 ± 3.01), confirming significantly decreased insulin sensitivity among obese than nonobese diabetics. Positive correlation was observed between BMI, WC, W:H and TC, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL, while negative correlation was observed with HDL in obese group. Lean individuals with normal BMI, WC had deranged lipids with IR.

Conclusion: Lean and obese T2DM have dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is associated with overall and visceral adiposity in obese and not in lean T2DM individuals.

Keywords: Lean, Lipid profile, Nonesterified free fatty acids, Obese, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

How to cite this article: Asegaonkar SB, Kareem I, Aghade S, Pagdhune A, Thorat A, Borkar MS. Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):6-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

4.  Original Research
Role of Hormones in Unexplained Infertility
Dipti C Ekka, Anju Jain, Manju Puri
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:34-37] [No of Hits : 537]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0007 | FREE


Unexplained infertility is a term applied to an infertile couple whose standard infertility investigations and workup are normal. The aim of the study is to assess the role of hormones in women with unexplained infertility. The female reproductive system is regulated by a balanced hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are important for ovulation and stimulation of secretion of estradiol and progesterone from the ovaries. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an important marker to predict the ovarian reserve. The primary function of the ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization, embryo development, and implantation. Fifty women diagnosed with unexplained infertility were enrolled as cases. These were age matched with 50 healthy fertile women volunteers. Body mass index (BMI) was found to be significantly higher in women with unexplained infertility. Serum FSH, LH, and estradiol were significantly higher in cases. LH:FSH ratio and serum AMH were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. To conclude, serum AMH, FSH, and LH:FSH ratio indicated poor ovarian reserve in women with unexplained infertility.

Keywords: Hormones, Role, Unexplained infertility.

How to cite this article: Ekka DC, Jain A, Puri M. Role of Hormones in Unexplained Infertility. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):34-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

5.  Original Research
Vitamin B12 and Holotranscobalamin Levels in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients
Mohammed Noorjahan, Kandregula Madhavi, Chandran Priscilla, Shaik A Jabeen
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:16-20] [No of Hits : 525]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0004 | FREE


Diabetic neuropathy is the most common and debilitating microvascular complication leading to nontraumatic amputations. Identifying the role of vitamin B12 in the etiology of neuropathy is crucial because simple vitamin B12 replacement may reverse neurologic symptoms if confirmed. Large proportion of vegetarians and patients on metformin have been associated with lowering of vitamin B12 levels. We have undertaken study on 60 vegetarian subjects between the age of 30 and 60 years, 20 healthy controls, 20 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who were on metformin with peripheral neuropathy (DMWN), and 20 diabetics without peripheral neuropathy (DMWON). Vitamin B12, homocysteine, and folate levels were measured, and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) is also included, to improve the diagnosis of tissue vitamin B12 status, as holoTC is the biologically active fraction and more sensitive index of vitamin B12 status than total vitamin B12 itself. Complete history and clinical evaluation for neuropathy and electroneuromyography were recorded.

Results: In the DMWN group, vitamin B12 levels were significantly higher than in the DMWON group and controls [1013 (564-1501) pmol/l, 387 (245-731) pmol/l, and 305 (234-472) pmol/l respectively]. Similarly, serum holoTC was also found to be significantly higher in the DMWN [203.8 (129-300) pmol/l] group compared with the DMWON [94.4 (42.2-230.6) pmol/l] group and controls [74 (40-170) pmol/l]. Whereas mean levels of homocysteine and folate did not show any significant difference between groups, significant increase in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c was seen in the DMWN group compared with DMWON group and controls. Duration of diabetes is also significantly more in DMWN group compared with DMWON group.

Conclusion: We found that vitamin B12 and holoTC levels were high in patients with DMWN and DMWON groups compared with controls. Our study demonstrated that peripheral neuropathy was not associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in diabetics. These findings merit further research on a larger population to investigate into the cause of diabetic neuropathy, the factors involved, and benefit of vitamin B12 supplementation in these patients.

Key messages: Vitamin B12 status has no association with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Holotranscobalamin, Peripheral neuropathy, Vitamin B12.

How to cite this article: Noorjahan M, Madhavi K, Priscilla C, Jabeen SA. Vitamin B12 and Holotranscobalamin Levels in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):16-20.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

6.  Poster Presentations
Poster Presentations
[Year:2015] [Month:July-December] [Volume:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:153] [Pages No:27-153] [No of Hits : 507]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | FREE

Poster Presentations

Lab Quality Management and Methodology

Optimum Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide in Jaffe?s Two-point Method for Serum Creatinine Measurement with Respect to Linearity Measurement as per Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute EP-6A Guideline
Riddhi R Patel, Khushbu Soni, Sarita Mangukia, Piyush Tailor, Sarita Patel, Shailesh Patel

Biosensors and their Applications
V Sreeramulu

Effect of Mean used for Calculation of Randox International Quality Assessment Scheme Target Score on Apparent Laboratory Performance for Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Examination
Sarita J Mangukiya, Khushbu Soni, Riddhi Patel, Piyush Tailor, Sarita H Patel

Are Sodium and Potassium Results on Arterial Blood Gas Analyzer Equivalent to those on Electrolyte Analyzer?
Shalini Gupta, Kamaljit Singh

Accreditation: The Need of the Hour
Vibha Uppal, Neha

Comparative Evaluation of Two Different Protocols for Derivation of Mean and Standard Deviation of Internal Quality Control Sera
Hinal Shah, Arpita Patel, Shilpa Jain

Patient Risk Management in Clinical Laboratory
Parkash Anuj

Study of Variation in Serum Electrolyte Values over a Period of Time
Dipti Tiwari, Pramod Ingale, Shubhangi Wankhade

Indices of Glucose Homeostasis in Cord Blood of Term and Preterm Newborns
Afzal Ahmad, MS Rukmini, Charu Yadav, Ashish Agarwal, AM Poornima, H Anupama

Comparative Study of Serum Electrolytes Levels on Arterial Blood Gas and Ion Selective Electrode Analyzer
Shubhangi Wankhade, Pramod Ingale, Dipti Tiwari

Serum Calcium, Phosphorus, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Glucose Levels in Tuberculosis Patients
Rajender Kumar, Asha Kumari, Veena S Ghalaut

Turnaround Time for Liver Function Tests in a Tertiary Care Center
Parveen Kavathekar, SB Asegaonkar, AP Thorat

Role of Quality Control in a Clinical Laboratory
Heena Singla, KMDS Panag, Gitanjali Goyal, Anil Batta

Professionalism in Laboratory Medicine
Sumant K Sharma, Smita Sharma, Rami A Al Dagrer

Analytical Sensitivity of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Assays by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay and Enzyme-linked Fluorescent Assay
K Pramila Egmore, Poonguzhali Gopinath

Utility of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer in Preterm Neonates in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Anjali Verma, Karnail Singh, Sandeep Banga, Sumit Dokwal

An Optimized, Cost-effective, and Efficient Laboratory Protocol for Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Extraction and Quantification for Proteomic Studies
Debapriya_Rath, Sudama Rathore, Pradeep K Patra

Comparison of Electrolytes by Blood Gas Analyzer and Laboratory Autoanalyzer
Ravi Yadav, Pallavi Sonika, Arushi Agarwal, Alok Khanna

Liquid Biopsy: A Recent Breakthrough in Cancer Genome Study
Shilpa Jain

Sigma Approach to Improve on Quality Indicators in a Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory
Animesh Bardoloi, Hemanta Das, Manab Kalita

Monitoring of Turnaround Time in Biochemistry Lab in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Punjab
Vaneet Kaur, Kamaljit Singh, Minni Verma, Brinder Chopra

Effect of Blood Storage on Complete Biochemistry
Monica Verma, Kiran Dahiya, Deepika Malik, Rama Devi, Veena S Ghalaut, PK Sehgal, Abhishek Soni

The Contribution of Lyzed Red Blood Cells to the Electrolyte Status of Serum
Inder P Kaur, Shikha Agarwal, Arun Nagtilak, Gautam Sarkar

Influence of Hemolysis and its Intensity on Several Biochemical Analytes
Arun Nagtilak, Inder P Kaur, Shikha Agarwal, Gautam Sarkar

Influence of Hemolysis and its Intensity on Thyroid Hormone Estimation
Shikha Agarwal, Gautam Sarkar, Inder P Kaur, Arun Nagtilak

Comparison of Melt Curve Profile of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Intercalating Dyes Used for Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Stuti Gupta, Mohit Mehndiratta, Seema Garg

Comparison of Effect of Ramp Rate on Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification by Melt Curve Analysis
Nilesh Chandra, Mohit Mehndiratta, Seema Garg

The ?Power? of a Study
KSS Sai Baba

A Walk through the Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory ? Past, Present, and Future ? A Career?s Experience
Shanthi N Kamatham

Immunology, Infection, Inflammation

Maternal Serum Endothelial Inflammatory Markers in Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia
Sarika Arora, Anil Kumar, Taru Gupta, Sangeeta Gupta, Nupur Gupta, Shishir Kumar

Inflammation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Rajni Dawar, Tabassum Yasmin

Prognostic Value of Serum Cholesterol Level in Sepsis
Pallavi Sonika, Arushi Agarwal, Ravi Yadav, Alok Khanna, Asha Kumari

Role of Serum Protein Electrophoresis and Immunotyping in Monoclonal Gammopathies
Gitanjali, KMDS Panag, Sheenam, Kirti, Jasmeet Singh, Raja Paramjeet

Serum γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase and Its Association with Inflammation in Obese Young Adults
D Rajarajeswari, JN Naidu

High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein, Lipid Profile, and Atherogenic Ratios in Patients of Lupus Nephritis
Neeraja Kunireddy, Priscilla A Chandran, Mahesh Putla, Siraj A Khan

Correlation of Thyroid Hormones and C-reactive Protein Level in Neonatal Sepsis
Arushi Agarwal, Pallavi Sonika, Ravi Yadav, Alok Khanna, Asha Kumari

Adenosine Deaminase Levels in Clinically Suspected Cases of Neonatal Sepsis
HR Suma, Chandrakala Iyer, G Naveen, Kavitha P Rasalkar, G Chandana, Uzma Anjum

Correlation of Serum Thyroid-stimulating Hormone, Cortisol, Iron, and Ferritin with Clinical Staging, Immunological Classification, AIDS, and HAART Status in HIV-infected Children
Charu Yadav, Poornima A Manjrekar, Afzal Ahmad, Ashish Agarwal, Anupama Hegde, MS Rukmini

Role of Autologous Platelet-derived Growth Factors and Fibrin-rich Plasma in Management of Chronic Nonhealing Ulcers: A Pilot Study
Piyush Bhargava, Suprava Patel, OP Tucker, V Jain, R Gahine, PK Khodiar, PK Patra

Serum Iron, Folate, Ferritin, and CD4 Count in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Women
M Kumawat, M Lallar, PS Ghalaut, S Nanda, S Kharb

Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patients
Sphoorti Bende, Kedar Joshi, AP Thorat

Vitamin D Level in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections
Kamlesh K Rathod, Alok Khanna, Ravi Yadav, Virender Gahlawat, Prathapa, Sunny Lohia

Neonatal Meningitis and Biochemical Parameter in Cerebrospinal Fluid
Sunny Lohia, Geeta Gathwala

7.  Original Article
Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Bhaskar Shahbabu, Nandita Hazra, Sarvinder Singh
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:25-29] [No of Hits : 320]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0014 | FREE


Aim: Thyroid disorders are one of the most common endocrine diseases in India. Thyroid disorders are more common in women than in men and contribute to significant morbidity. In this postiodization era, there is paucity of pan-Indian data of thyroid disorder status among adult nonpregnant women. This study was done to analyze the thyroid hormone levels in women of Jharkhand region, which is traditionally known to be an iodine-deficient area.

Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nonpregnant adult females in Ranchi area who were consuming iodized salt formed part of the study group. Clinical evaluation was done by a gynecologist pertaining to thyroid illness. Thyroid function tests encompassing triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroidstimulating hormone were carried out by quantitative enzyme immunoassay method. Thyroid status of the population was defined as per kit reference range.

Results: Subjects with age range 20 to 67 years were divided into three groups as per clinical status of thyroid disorder, viz. total, disease free, and control. A total of 19.6% had biochemical evidence of thyroid disorder and 82.4% were euthyroid as per reference ranges in kit literature. Out of hypothyroid subjects, 3.2% had clinical and 14.4% had subclinical hypothyroidism. In the study group, no subjects were detected to have overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism. Multiple comparison analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0, a statistical software package.

Discussion: This is the first study in Jharkhand area on nonpregnant adult female population that are getting iodine sufficient foods in an iodine-deficient region. The study showed high prevalence of thyroid disorders in the study group. Hypothyroidism, predominantly subclinical hypothyroidism, is prevalent among women in this region.

Keywords: Iodine sufficient, Nonpregnant adult female, Subclinical hypothyroidism, Thyroid disorders.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Shahbabu B, Hazra N, Singh S. Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):25-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

8.  Original Article
Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay
Jayesh Warade
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:1-4] [No of Hits : 295]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0009 | FREE


Introduction: Jaundice is the visible manifestation of chemical bilirubinemia and is characterized by yellow discoloration of skin. In a pediatric emergency department, evaluation of jaundice includes a precise medical history, physical examination, and estimation of bilirubin by laboratory tests. Measurement of total serum bilirubin (TSB) by transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is interpreted according to the age (in hours) of the newborn infant. Studies have also indicated that the TcB determination is more accurate than visual estimation methods.

Aim: To compare BiliCare System against standard laboratory testing for bilirubin estimation.

Results: The coefficient of correlation was r = 0.7245, and the standard deviation between the mean values of TcB and TSB is ±0.55.

Conclusion: It is concluded from the study that there is good correlation between TcB measurement and laboratory estimation of total bilirubin levels. It is recommended that transcutaneous measurement can be used for initial screening of jaundice as well as monitoring of phototherapy in neonates.

Keywords: BiliCare, Bilirubin, Jaundice, Kernicterus, Transcutaneous.

How to cite this article: Warade J. Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

9.  Original Article
Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D
Mamta Gupta, Arijit Debnath, Sanjay Jain, Vandana Saini, Somosri Ray
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:42-48] [No of Hits : 286]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0018 | FREE


Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D in pregnancy has been reported to cause various maternal effects, i.e., hypocalcemia, subclinical myopathy, increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), cesarean sections, and fetal effects, i.e., neonatal tetany, hyperbilirubinemia congenital rickets, infantile rickets, etc. Only few Indian studies are available in this regard.

Objective: To estimate serum vitamin D levels in pregnant women, cord blood, and study fetomaternal outcomes.

Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 54 consecutive pregnant women and their newborn babies. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was estimated in all women at the time of admission in labor ward. They were followed up to delivery and 48 hours postpartum. Vitamin D was also estimated in cord blood collected during delivery. All results were recorded and analyzed statistically.

Results: The mean 25(OH)D level in pregnancy was 6.81 ± 7.38 ng/mL. The mean 25(OH)D level in their babies (cord blood) was 6.34 ± 7.05 ng/mL. There was very strong positive correlation between maternal and fetal serum 25(OH)D levels (p-value 0.001, r-value 0.9). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with obesity, PE, and GDM (p-value 0.001). Neonatal jaundice and tetany were also significantly associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.

Conclusion: Low levels of vitamin D have been observed in pregnant women and their newborn babies. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse fetomaternal outcomes. As there is a strong correlation of maternal and neonatal levels, supplementing vitamin D in a pregnant women might improve these adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: Cord blood vitamin D, Fetomaternal outcome, Hypovitaminosis D, Vitamin D status in pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Gupta M, Debnath A, Jain S, Saini V, Ray S. Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):42-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

10.  Original Article
Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Reetika Pal, Nandita Hazra
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:17-21] [No of Hits : 234]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0012 | FREE


Aim: Maternal thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy are vital for the health of the mother as well as the developing child. Fetal growth is affected by maternal thyroid levels. Various physiological changes like alterations of thyroxine-binding globulins, human chorionic gonadotropin level, and changes in iodide metabolism affect maternal thyroid hormone levels. Therefore, reference intervals (RIs) for thyroid hormones in pregnant population require to be established separately from the general population.

Materials and methods: The RIs of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in healthy pregnant women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique after segregating them into three trimesters. This study was conducted in a 492-bedded zonal-level hospital. The reference population was chosen from a study population of pregnant women by strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The assays were done by the most-commonly used, economical ELISA method employing standard kits. Tests were done using accurate and precise methods with proper quality control measures.

Results: The RIs were calculated from the central 95% of distribution of total T3, total T4, and TSH values located between 2.5 and 97.5 percentile values. The 0.90 confidence intervals for the upper and lower reference limits were calculated. The values thus obtained were different from those provided by the manufacturer kit literature.

Conclusion: It is recommended to determine one’s own laboratory-specific, method-specific, trimester-wise RIs for maternal thyroid hormone status and use them for screening of pregnant women.

Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Laboratory research, Pregnancy, Reference interval, Thyroid hormones, Trimester specific.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Pal R, Hazra N. Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):17-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

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