Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry
Volume 27 | Issue 1 | Year 2023

A Comparative Analysis between HaemurEx (Clinical Chemistry Analyzer) and Standard Methodologies for Determining Its Efficacy for Estimation of Various Blood Parameters Like Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Creatinine, Direct Bilirubin, and Total Bilirubin

Kusuma Kasapura Shivashankar1, Swetha Nagarahalli Kempegowda2, Abhijith Devaraju3, Akila Prashant4, Suma Maduvanahalli Nataraj5, Partha Chakraborty6, Amrita Mukherjee7

1–5Department of Biochemistry, JSS Medical College, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

6,7Department of Product Development, Arogyam Medisoft Solution Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Corresponding Author: Amrita Mukherjee, Department of Product Development, Arogyam Medisoft Solution Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Phone: +91 9038785693, e-mail: amrita.mukherjee@arogyammedisoft.com

How to cite this article: Shivashankar KK, Kempegowda SN, Devaraju A, et al. A Comparative Analysis between HaemurEx (Clinical Chemistry Analyzer) and Standard Methodologies for Determining Its Efficacy for Estimation of Various Blood Parameters Like Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Creatinine, Direct Bilirubin, and Total Bilirubin. Indian J Med Biochem 2023;27(1):1–8.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: Dr Akila Prashant is associated as the Zonal Representatives of this journal and this manuscript was subjected to this journal’s standard review procedures, with this peer review handled independently of this editorial board member and her research group.

Patient consent statement: The author(s) have obtained written informed consent from the patient for publication of the case report details and related images.

Received on: 18 September 2023; Accepted on: 04 November 2023; Published on: 05 December 2023


Background: The rapidly increasing cases of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are required to be managed to maintain the sustainable development of society. HaemurEx, developed by Arogyam Medisoft Solution, is a battery-operated, lightweight, photometric clinical chemistry analyzer with the ability to transmit data to a remote health platform. It can evaluate different blood and urine biomarkers related to various NCDs and women’s health at the community level. This novel device can advance universal access to healthcare by enhancing the availability, accessibility, and affordability of testing the blood and urine biomarkers in primary health setup and thus can improve screening and monitoring of NCD conditions. The present study compares the results obtained from HaemurEx with the standard methodologies for patient care to determine its efficacy and accuracy.

Materials and methods: The amount of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and creatinine were estimated in 40 blood samples collected from the inpatient and outpatient facilities at JSS Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India using the standard methodologies. The same samples were analyzed on the same day using HaemurEx. The results obtained from both methods were compared to validate the performance characteristics of HaemurEx for its operation.

Results: The comparison between the results revealed the accuracy of HaemurEx for the above-mentioned parameters to be in the range of 85–97%.

Conclusion: HaemurEx as a screening tool has the potential to significantly impact the diagnosis and treatment of different NCDs and diseases related to women in low-resource areas.

Keywords: Blood analysis, Clinical chemistry analyzer, HaemurEx, Noncommunicable disease, Remote healthcare.


Providing efficient, accessible, and affordable healthcare solutions to the majority of the population has become one of the most challenging areas in the current world. The limitations of physical healthcare system infrastructure and supplies in remote areas in a country like India coupled with the increased cost of transportation to the health centers have made the scenario much worse than imagined and have created a large gap in accessing basic health care.1

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become major concerns for the last few decades. As per the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular diseases account for most of the NCD deaths (17.9 million people annually), followed by cancers (9.3 million), respiratory diseases (4.1 million), and diabetes (1.5 million). Most importantly, these diseases cause the death of almost 41 million people each year, equivalent to 71% of all deaths globally.2 Moreover, as per the WHO, each year, more than 15 million people die from NCDs between the ages of 30 and 69 years, whereas 85% of these “premature” deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. In the low-resource areas, treatment, and management of NCDs can cost a major portion of the income, especially for people living on a daily wage. Thus, the situation leads to a threatened progress toward the sustainable development of society. As per the WHO, an important way to control NCDs is early detection, screening, treatment, and providing access to healthcare for people in need.

In this context, NCD management interventions like telehealth platforms connected to low-cost in vitro diagnostic devices (IVDs) including portable clinical chemistry analyzers can be of great importance and improve easy access to preventive healthcare. These devices can be used in various doctors’ offices, hospitals, and patients’ homes and can give quick feedback on many types of medical tests. It can be very beneficial in rural areas for the early detection of various NCD conditions such as diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, chronic nephritis, obstruction of the urinary tract, muscle dystrophy, various renal diseases, gout, hypolipoproteinemia, liver function, biliary function, intestinal absorption, thyroid function, adrenal disease, coronary artery disease, and cirrhosis of the liver.37 These types of devices can also be very useful for detecting and managing other underlying conditions, indicated through the level of different blood and urine biomarkers or cellular materials in the blood.8,9

Arogyam Medisoft Solution Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata, West Bengal, India has developed HaemurEx (Fig. 1), a photometric clinical chemistry analyzer, with the ability to transmit information to a remote server that provides digital health care to patients in low-resource areas. Arogyam Medisoft Solution Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata, West Bengal, India is registered under Startup India and incubated at Startup Incubation and Innovation Centre (SIIC), Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. HaemurEx is less than 500 gm of weight, runs on an inbuilt battery, and uses a smart device interface. HaemurEx, a patented class A IVD, is based on microfluidics, machine learning, image processing, and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. The device has passed the testing for safety requirements for electrical equipment for measuring, control, and laboratory use as per part 1, general requirement of EN 61010-1:2010+A1:2019 from a National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL)-accredited lab. It is designed and manufactured in the European CE, ISO 13485, ICMED 13485, and National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC)-certified facility in India. It has also received Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) clearance from the Government of India. The device has an insertion slot through which a tray containing the blood or urine sample exposed to approved reagents can be inserted. In its current design, there are two different kinds of trays, one is for analyzing blood parameters and another is for analyzing urine parameters. It can test:

Fig. 1: HaemurEx—clinical chemistry analyzer

HaemurEx can transmit test results along with patient and sample identifiers using a secured HTTP protocol to a remote cloud server. It can also eliminate the risk of error due to manual transcription of the test result through its in-built integration with a cloud-based laboratory information management system. Its cloud server is hosted on the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (EU GDPR) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)-compliant Google Cloud Platform10,11 and it does not store any information on the device.

The accuracy of the device has been validated at the School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, through an interim validation procedure, has been found in the range of 82–93%.12

The present study deals with the comparison between the data obtained from the standard comparator device which is Integrated Roche Cobas 6000-c501 component (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) with HaemurEx for the estimation of various blood parameters like glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin by determining the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity for each comparison along with their correlation coefficient at JSS Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. This study aims to validate the performance characteristics of HaemurEx for its operational qualification.


A total of 40 patients of any sex, admitted at the inpatient and outpatient facility of the Department of Biochemistry, JSS Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India who otherwise have been advised blood examination by the treating physician as part of their current treatment plan were included in the study.

The sample size was determined in such a manner so that the study represents an adequate population.13 This sample size represents approximately 1 billion population with 95% confidence level and 15% margin of error.14

Calibration of HaemurEx Device

For each of the parameters, quality controls (QCs) of HaemurEx were ensured for each of these tests by calibrator solutions (blank/internal standard/control). The internal standards/calibrators were procured from Anamol Laboratories Pvt. Ltd, Palghar, Maharashtra, India vide license number 25-KD/599 dated 4 November 2016. Following recommendations from the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) guidance for the industry for bioanalytical method validation, released in May 2018 had been used for this purpose.15 Four QCs, including lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), low (L, defined as three times the LLOQ), mid (M, defined as mid-range), and high (H, defined as high range) from 10 replicates in 5 runs were used to establish accuracy and precision. The following acceptance criteria were considered to meet the requirement of the calibration curve:

  • Accuracy: Within run and between runs, ±15% of nominal concentrations; except ±20% at LLOQ.

  • Precision: Within run and between runs, ±15% CV (coefficient of variation); except ±20% CV at LLOQ.

Estimation of the Different Blood Parameters by the Comparator Device

After completing the initial QC by Arogyam Medisoft Solution, the device was delivered to the Department of Biochemistry, JSS Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India for the project and the following comparison study was carried out independently by three researchers of JSS Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. Blood samples were collected from 40 patients for estimation of the target biomarkers following the standard analytical methodologies (Table 1) in the Department of Biochemistry at JSS Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India for 1 month without performing any further calibration.1622 All the measurements were performed using Roche dedicated reagents except direct bilirubin which was done using Doumas Roche direct bilirubin.

Table 1: Standard methodology used for estimation of blood biomarkers
S. No. Parameter Unit of measurement Standard methodology
1 Glucose mg/dL Hexokinase method17,18
2 Cholesterol mg/dL CHOD–POD method19,20
3 Triglyceride mg/dL Enzymatic end point21
4 Creatinine mg/dL Enzymatic IFCC-IDMS standardized method22
5 Total bilirubin mg/dL Diazonium ion blanked (Roche) method23
6 Direct bilirubin mg/dL Diazotization method23
CHOD–POD, cholesterol oxidase–peroxidase; IFCC–IDMS, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

Estimation of the Different Blood Parameters by HaemurEx

The serums collected from the same 40 samples were used to analyze the amount of the target biomarkers using HaemurEx on the same day when they were tested through standard methodology. The procedure for testing through HaemurEx is described below. About 1 mL of venous blood sample was collected in a clean and dry vial and the serum was isolated by centrifugation. About 100 µL of serum sample must be separated. Serum samples must be used for testing within 2–3 hours of blood collection. About 1000 µL (1 mL) of the respective reagent for each biomarker was taken in a tube and 10 µL serum sample was added to it and then it was mixed. The reagents for each target biomarker were manufactured by Anamol Laboratories Pvt. Ltd, Maharashtra, India, and were provided with HaemurEx. The sample and reagent mixture were then kept at the required incubation temperature for the stipulated times (Table 2) and 500 µL (0.5 mL) of the reaction mixture was then taken in a 0.5 mL tube using a micropipette. The 0.5 mL tube containing the reaction mixture was put in the microtray provided with HaemurEx facing the clear side. The microtray was then inserted in a particular slot in the device to take readings. The result is reflected on the digital surface of the device after clicking on the measure button.

Table 2: Incubation time and temperature of the blood biomarkers
S. No. Parameter Time of incubation Temperature of incubation Type of reaction
1 Glucose 10 minutes 37°C End-point
2 Triglyceride 10 minutes 37°C End-point
3 Cholesterol 10 minutes 37°C End-point
4 Total bilirubin 5 minutes 20°C–25°C End-point
5 Direct bilirubin 5 minutes 20°C–25°C End-point
6 Creatinine 30 seconds 20°C–25°C Kinetics

Results obtained from the Integrated Roche Cobas 6000 (c501 component) automated analyzer were compared with the results received from the HaemurEx device.

Statistical Analysis

Data collected in this comparative analysis were compiled and analyzed using the following statistical methods. The bland-Altman plot was used for studying the mean difference and constructing limits of agreement between the results from the comparator device and the results received from the HaemurEx apparatus. The plot would show the mean bias ± standard deviation to establish the agreement between the two methods.23 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot was also used for determining agreement between the results from the comparator device (reference data) and the results from the HaemurEx apparatus (test data).

Statistical analyses were performed using MedCalc for Windows (MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium). The correlation factor was determined from the Bland–Altman plot. Bland–Altman plot method is used to estimate agreement between the results from the comparator equipment and the results received from the HaemurEx device. The US FDA guidance for the industry for bioanalytical method validation, released in May 201815 is used as a guideline for validation acceptance criteria of specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The following acceptance criteria would be considered to meet requirement of the specificity and sensitivity in the clinically significant region of the measurement:

  • Accuracy, ±20% of nominal concentration

  • Precision, ±20% CV


A total of 40 blood samples were collected from the patients admitted in the inpatient and the outpatient facility of the Biochemistry department of JSS Medical College, Mysuru, Karnataka, India for the estimation of six blood parameters. The details of the age and sex distribution of the patients for different parameters are given in Table 3.

Table 3: Age and sex distribution of the patients
S. No. Parameter Age Sex
1 Glucose 4 days to 88 years Number of males: 20
      Number of females: 20
2 Total cholesterol 16 years to 80 years Number of males: 11
      Number of females: 29
3 Triglycerides 16 years to 80 years Number of males: 28
      Number of females: 12
4 Direct bilirubin 44 days to 85 years Number of males: 19
      Number of females: 21
5 Total bilirubin 2 days to 80 years Number of males: 22
      Number of females: 18
6 Creatinine 18 years to 82 years Number of males: 25
      Number of females: 15

Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin were measured, and the data obtained from the standard device and HaemurEx were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (in terms of percent deviation) for each comparison were determined along with their correlation coefficient (Fig. 2). The data obtained from the comparator device and that of the HaemurEx device were found to be highly correlated for all the parameters (Table 4). The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy were also calculated for HaemurEx as compared with the gold standard device for all the parameters (Table 4). The HaemurEx device has shown high performance as evident from the ROC curve and the AUC values (Fig. 2). The measuring ranges and linearity of the test systems for the different parameters are mentioned in Table 5.

Table 4: Specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy estimation of HaemurEx device for different parameters
S. No. Parameter Number of samples Specificity (%) Sensitivity (%) Accuracy (%) Correlation coefficient (r)
1 Glucose 40 100 72.73 92.5 0.9767
2 Total cholesterol 40 93.75 75 90 0.7859
3 Triglyceride 40 95.24 73.68 85 0.8842
4 Total bilirubin 39 100 87.50 97.44 0.9966
5 Direct bilirubin 39 94.29 75 92.31 0.9937
6 Creatinine 40 90 80 87.50 0.8421
Accuracy is overall probability that a patient will be correctly classified; Sensitivity is probability that a test result will be positive when the disease is present; Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are expressed as percentages; Specificity is probability that a test result will be negative when the disease is not present
Table 5: Measuring ranges and linearity of different parameters as evident from HaemurEx
S. No. Parameter Measuring range Linearity
1 Glucose 20–500 mg/dL 20–500 mg/dL
2 Total cholesterol 10–1000 mg/dL 85–500 mg/dL
3 Triglyceride 11–1600 mg/dL 35–800 mg/dL
4 Total bilirubin 0.15–20 mg/dL 0.15–20 mg/dL
5 Direct bilirubin Up to 0.5 mg/dL 0.15–20 mg/dL
6 Creatinine 0.6–1.4 mg/dL 0.3–30 mg/dL

Figs 2A to L: Bland–Altman plot and ROC curve for agreement analysis between different parameters measured through HaemurEx and standard protocol with 95% standard interval


The present study has established a high level of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of HaemurEx for six biomarkers of blood (glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin). The accuracy of the tests has been found in the range of 85–97.4%. In this context, as per the recommendations from the US FDA guidance for industry for bioanalytical method validation, released in May 2018, the acceptance criteria for incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) is that 67% of the samples should be ±20% of the mean.15

Based on the previous study,12 HaemurEx has been integrated with a small 37°C incubator, which can also be battery operated to make it more convenient and useful in rural areas where getting continuous electricity is a challenge.

In the future, similar studies will be conducted to evaluate the performance of HaemurEx by collecting blood samples through the capillary method. Further studies should be done to check for other parameters like SGOT, SGPT, HDL, and LDL which would make HaemurEx more effective in the low resource areas, where the availability of technical personnel is less,24 for the detection and prevention of the disease conditions early.


The ease of use, portability, no dependence on external power supply, and calibration-independent nature of HaemurEx allow it to be a good candidate for a point-of-care testing instrument in rural healthcare and homecare. Coupled with new age technology of tele-enabled digital electrocardiogram (ECG) and other devices connected to a digital health platform, this novel system can be deployed in all primary health centers and subcenters and outreach clinics in combination with provisioning of physician consultation and essential medicine and can advance universal access to healthcare in countries like India.

Clinical Significance

The ability to test various blood and urine biomarkers specifically in rural healthcare can be beneficial for the successful management of various NCDs. This also helps in detecting and managing other underlying symptoms, indicated through the level of these biomarkers within a short time.

The high accuracy and sensitivity of HaemurEx lead to the early diagnosis of diseases leading to early treatment decisions and monitoring resulting in a fewer number of deaths especially in rural areas. HaemurEx helps the diagnostic technicians to perform many tests within a short time with high accuracy which helps in performance optimization, quality management, and training.


The study protocol and related documents were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of JSS Medical College; Mysuru, Karnataka, India vide letter No. JSSMC/IEC/18.02.2022/21 NCT/2021-22 dated 3 March 2022.


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