Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 21 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D

Arijit Debnath, Somosri Ray

Citation Information : Debnath A, Ray S. Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D. Indian J Med Biochem 2017; 21 (1):42-48.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0018

License: CC BY 3.0

Published Online: 01-12-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



Hypovitaminosis D in pregnancy has been reported to cause various maternal effects, i.e., hypocalcemia, subclinical myopathy, increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), cesarean sections, and fetal effects, i.e., neonatal tetany, hyperbilirubinemia congenital rickets, infantile rickets, etc. Only few Indian studies are available in this regard.


To estimate serum vitamin D levels in pregnant women, cord blood, and study fetomaternal outcomes.

Materials and methods

A prospective observational study was conducted on 54 consecutive pregnant women and their newborn babies. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was estimated in all women at the time of admission in labor ward. They were followed up to delivery and 48 hours postpartum. Vitamin D was also estimated in cord blood collected during delivery. All results were recorded and analyzed statistically.


The mean 25(OH)D level in pregnancy was 6.81 ± 7.38 ng/mL. The mean 25(OH)D level in their babies (cord blood) was 6.34 ± 7.05 ng/mL. There was very strong positive correlation between maternal and fetal serum 25(OH)D levels (p-value 0.001, r-value 0.9). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with obesity, PE, and GDM (p-value 0.001). Neonatal jaundice and tetany were also significantly associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.


Low levels of vitamin D have been observed in pregnant women and their newborn babies. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse fetomaternal outcomes. As there is a strong correlation of maternal and neonatal levels, supplementing vitamin D in a pregnant women might improve these adverse pregnancy outcomes.

How to cite this article

Gupta M, Debnath A, Jain S, Saini V, Ray S. Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):42-48.

  1. Vitamin D and bone mineral density status of healthy schoolchildren in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr 2005 Aug;82(2):477–482.
  2. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr 2005 May;81(5):1060–1064.
  3. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant Korean women: the first trimester and the winter season as risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Nutrients 2015 May 11;7(5):3427–3448.
  4. Diet, sun, and lifestyle as determinants of vitamin D status. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014 May;1317:92–98.
  5. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest 2006 Aug;116(8):2062–2072.
  6. Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007 Sep;92(9):3517–3522.
  7. Identification of a vitamin D response element in the human insulin receptor gene promoter. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003 Feb;84(2-3):223–230.
  8. Maternal vitamin D status and delivery by caesarean. Nutrients 2012 Apr;4(4):319–330.
  9. Transient neonatal hypocalcemia: presentations and outcomes. Paediatrics 2012;129(6):1461–1467.
  10. Vitamin D and hyperbilirubinemia in neonates. HK J Paediatr (new ser) 2013;18:77s–81s.
  11. Nutritional rickets among children in the United States: review of cases reported between 1986 and 2003. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 Dec;80(Suppl 6):1697S–1705S.
  12. Vitamin D deficiency and related disorders. Medscape 2016 Oct.
  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus – guidelines. J Assoc Physicians India 2006 Aug;54:622–628.
  14. Vitamin D deficiency in rural girls and pregnant women despite abundant sunshine in northern India. Clin Endocrinol 2009 May;70(5):680–684.
  15. Vitamin D deficiency among women in labor and cord blood of new borns. Indian Pediatr 2015 Jun;52(6):530–531
  16. Current scenario of vitamin D status during pregnancy in North India population. J Obstet Gynecol India 2016 Apr;66(2):93–100.
  17. Status of 25(OH)D level in pregnancy: a study from North-eastern part of India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012 Dec;16 (Suppl 2):S405–S407.
  18. High prevalence of low dietary calcium, high phytate consumption and vitamin D deficiency in healthy south Indians. Am J Clin Nutr 2007 Apr;85(4):1062–1067.
  19. Maternal-neonatal vitamin D status and related factors. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2012 Jul;50(7):498–503.
  20. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Sep;72(3):690–693.
  21. Relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and C-reactive protein in asymptomatic adults (from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2006). Am J Cardiol 2012 Jan 15;109(2):226–230.
  22. Inflammation and vitamin D: the infection connection. Inflamm Res 2014 Oct;63(10):803–819.
  23. Vitamin D and placental decidual function. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2004 Jul;11(5):263–271.
  24. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates VEGF production through a vitamin D response element in the VEGF promoter. Atherosclerosis 2009 May;204(1):85–89.
  25. Transcriptional activation of the human insulin receptor gene by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cell Biochem Funct 2002;20(3):227–232.
  26. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007 Jun;92(6):2017–2029.
  27. Role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008 Mar;10(3):185–197.
  28. Vitamin D and the immune system. J Investig Med 2011 Aug;59(6):881–886.
  29. Association between vitamin D deficiency and primary cesarean section. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009 Mar;94(3):940–945.
  30. The relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and low birth weight neonates. J Family Reprod Health 2015 Sep;9(3):113–117.
  31. Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight. CMAJ 2006 Apr 25;174(9):1273–1277.
  32. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and offspring birth size: effect modification by infant VDR genotype. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009 Jun;63(6):802–804.
  33. Prenatal and infant predictors of bone health: the influence of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 Dec;80(6):1748S–1751S.
  34. Vitamin D status in mothers and their newborns in Iran. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2007 Feb 12;7:1.
  35. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: effect on neonatal calcium homeostasis. J Pediatr 1986 Aug;109(2):328–334.
  36. Vitamin D levels in maternal serum and umbilical cord blood in a multi-ethnic population in Antwerp, Belgium. Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2013;5(1):3–5.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.