Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 22 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2018 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Comparison of Direct Bilirubin on Two Automated Systems: Influence of Delta Bilirubin

Ekta Bansal

Keywords : Comparison of methods, Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, Direct bilirubin, Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia

Citation Information : Bansal E. Comparison of Direct Bilirubin on Two Automated Systems: Influence of Delta Bilirubin. Indian J Med Biochem 2018; 22 (1):75-77.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0059

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-06-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: In a routine clinical laboratory having more than one automated system, comparison of methods experiment provides a means to assess any method\'s performance. It helps to estimate systematic (constant and proportional) difference between two methods. If the difference between two methods is small and clinically acceptable, then these two methods can be used interchangeably. In this study, we have compared direct bilirubin on two automated systems and tried to analyze the cause behind the difference between the two. Materials and methods: Serum samples obtained from normal individuals as well as those with unconjugated and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia were analyzed on Cobas 6000 and Olympus AU 2700 simultaneously. Results: There was a significant difference in the values of direct bilirubin in patients with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia on the two automated systems. No difference was seen in normal persons and in patients with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusion: Delta bilirubin might be a contributing factor to the difference between direct bilirubin on the two systems, as it is expected only in patients with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.


PDF Share
  1. Billing BH, Cole PG, Lathe GH. The excretion of bilirubin as a glucuronide giving the direct van der Bergh reaction. Biochemical J 1957 Apr;65(4):774-783.
  2. Kuenzle CC, Maier C, Ruttner JR. The nature of four bilirubin fractions from serum and of three bilirubin fractions from bile. J Lab Clin Med 1966 Feb;67(2):294-306.
  3. Weiss JS, Gautam A, Lauff JJ, Sundberg MW, Jatlow P, Boyer JL, Seligson D. The clinical importance of a protein-bound fraction of serum bilirubin in patients with hyperbilirubinemia. N Engl J Med 1983 Jul;309(3):147-150.
  4. Malloy HT, Evelyn KA. The determination of bilirubin with the photoelectric colorimeter. J Biol Chem 1937 Aug;119:481-490.
  5. Van den Bergh AA, Mueller P. Ueber eine direkte and indirekte diazoreaktion auf bilirubin. Biochem Z 1916;77:90-103.
  6. Gasljevic V. Method validation and measurement uncertainty. Biochem Med 2010 Feb;20(1):57-63.
  7. Imre S, Vlase L, Muntean DL. Bioanalytical method validation. Rev Rom Med Lab 2008 Mar;10(1):13-21.
  8. Westgard, JO. The comparison of methods experiment. Madison (WI): Westgard QC; 2010. [cited 2010 Dec 27]. Available from: http://www.westgard.com/lesson23.htm#10.
  9. Lauff JJ, Kasper ME, Wu TW, Ambrose RT. Isolation and preliminary characterization of a fraction of bilirubin in serum that is firmly bound to protein. Clin Chem 1982 Apr;28(4 Pt 1): 629-637.
  10. Ostrea EM Jr, Ongtengco EA, Tolia VA, Apostol E. The occurrence and significance of the bilirubin species, including delta bilirubin, in jaundiced infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1988 Jul-Aug;7(4):511-516.
  11. Ye W, Rosenthal P, Magee JC, Whitington PF; Childhood Liver Disease Research and Education Network. Factors determining ä-Bilirubin levels in infants with biliary atresia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015 May;60(5):659-663.
  12. Rosenthal P, Jennings MT. Serum delta bilirubin estimation by an automated method. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1992 Jan;30(1):39-41.
  13. Kozaki N, Shimizu S, Higashijima H, Kuroki S, Yamashita H, Yamaguchi K, Chijiiwa K, Tanaka M. Significance of serum delta bilirubin in patients with obstructive jaundice. J Surg Res 1998 Sep;79(1):61-65.
  14. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrin Metal 2011 Jul;96(7):1911-1930.
  15. Okazaki R, Ozono K, Fukumoto S, Inoue D, Yamauchi M, Minagawa M, Michigami T, Takeuchi Y, Matsumoto T, Sugimoto T. Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan: proposal by an expert panel supported by Research Program of Intractable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, the Japanese society for bone and mineral research and the Japan endocrine society. Endocr J 2017 Jan;64(1):1-6.
  16. Harinarayan CV, Ramalakshmi T, Prasad UV, Sudhakar D, Srinivasarao PV, Sarma KV, Kumar EG. High prevalence of low dietary calcium, high phytate consumption, and vitamin D deficiency in healthy south Indians. Am J Clin Nutr 2007 Apr;85(4):1062-1067.
  17. Islam MZ, Akhtaruzzaman M, Lamberg-Allardt C. Hypovitaminosis D is common in both veiled and nonveiled Bangladeshi women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006 Feb;15(1):81-87.
  18. Agarwal N, Mithal A, Dhingra V, Kaur P, Godbole MM, Shukla M. Effect of two different doses of oral cholecalciferol supplementation on serum 25(OH) levels in Healthy Indian Postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Sep;17(5):883-889.
  19. Villareal DT, Civitelli R, Chines A, Avioli LV. Sub clinical vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with low vertebral bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991 Mar;72(3): 628-634.
  20. Mezquita-Raya P, Munoz-Torres M, Luna JD, Luna V, Lopez-Rodriquez F, Torres-Vela F, Escobar-Jimenez F. Relationship between vitamin D insufficiency, bone density and bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 2001 Aug;16(8):1408-1415.
  21. Mehta M, Patel RK, Shah J. Vitamin D deficiency associated comorbidities—a study from Vadodara, India. IJRRMS 2012 Oct-Dec;2(4):18-20.
  22. Omdahl JL, Garry PJ, Hunsaker LA, Hunt WC, Goodwin JS. Nutritional status in a healthy elderly population: vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 1982 Dec;36(6):1225-1233.
  23. McKenna MJ. Differences in vitamin D status between countries in young adults and the elderly. Am J Med 1992 Jul;93(1):69-77.
  24. Sharma R, Sharma TK, Kaushik GG, Sharma S, Vardey SK, Sinha M. Subclinical hypothyroidism and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Lab 2011 Jan;57(9-10):719-724.
  25. Smulders YM, Rakic M, Slaats EH, Treskes M, Sijbrands EJ, Odekerken DA, Stehouwer CD, Silberbusch J. Fasting and post-methionine homocysteine levels in NIDDM: determinants and correlations with retinopathy, albuminuria, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 1999 Jan;22(1): 125-132.
  26. Agardh CD, Agardh E, Andersson A, Hultberg B. Lack of association between plasma homocysteine levels and microangiopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1998 Dec;54(8):637-641.
  27. Chico A, Perez A, Cordoba A, Arcelus R, Carreras G, de Leiva A, Gonzalez-Sastre F, Blanco-Vaca F. Plasma homocysteine is related to albumin excretion rate in patients with diabetes mellitus: a new link between diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease? Diabetologia 1998 Jun;41(6):684-693.
  28. Wollesen F, Brattstrom L, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Berglund L, Berne C. Plasma total homocysteine and cysteine in relation to glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int 1999 Mar;55(3):1028-1035.
  29. Stabler S, Estacio R, Jeffers B, Cohen J, Allen R, Schrier R. Total homocysteine is associated with nephropathy in non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1999 Sep;48(9): 1096-1101.
  30. Puri A, Gupta OK, Dwivedi RN, Bharadwaj RPS, Na-rain VS, Singh S. Homocysteine and lipid levels in young patients with coronary artery disease. J Assoc Phys India 2003 Jul;51:681-685.
  31. Abraham JM, Cho L. The homocysteine hypothesis: still relevant to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease? Cleve Clin J Med 2010 Dec;77(12):911-918.
  32. Samia J, Asghar S, Fayaz. Relation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration to type of diabetes and its control. Biomedica 2000;16:19-24.
  33. Krauss RM. Lipids and lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004 Jun;27(6):1496-1504.
  34. Ronald M. Lipid and lipoproteins in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004 Jun;27(6):1496-1504.
  35. Tushuizen M, Diamant M, Heine R. Postprandial dysmetabolism and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Postgrad Med J 2005 Jan;81(951):1-6.
  36. Shera A, Jawad F. Prevalence of chronic complications and associated factors in Type 2 Diabetes. J Pak Med Assoc 2004 Feb;54(2):54-59.
  37. Alakailly X, Kummoona R, Quereshy FA, Baur DA, Gonzalez AE. The use of sodium tetradecyl sulphate for the treatment of venous malformations of the head and neck. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2015 Jun;14(2):332-338.
  38. Yamaki T, Nozaki M, Sakurai H, Takeuchi M, Soejima K, Kono T. Prospective randomized efficacy of ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy compared with ultrasound-guided liquid sclerotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic venous malformations. J Vasc Surg 2008 Mar;47(3):578-584.
  39. Imbesi SG, Green DA, Cho A, Pakbaz RS. MR angiographicguided percutaneous sclerotherapy for venous vascular malformations: a radiation dose-reduction strategy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2016 Feb;37(2):205-209.
  40. Muir T, Kirsten M, Fourie P, Dippennar N, Ionescu GO. Interalesional bleomycin injection (IBI) treatment for haemangiomas and congenital vascular malformations. Pediatr Surg Int 2004 Jan;19(12):766-773.
  41. Spence J, Krings T, terBrugge KG, da Costa LB, Agid R. Percutaneous sclerotherapy for facial venous malformations: subjective clinical and objective MR imaging follow-up results. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2010 May;31(5):955-960.
  42. Folayan M, Owotade F, Adejuyigbe E, Sen S, Lawal B, Ndukwe K. The timing of eruption of the primary dentition in Nigerian children. Am J Phys Anthopol 2007 Dec;134(4): 443-448.
  43. Feraru IV, Raducanu AM, Feraru SM, Herteliu C. The sequence and chronology of the eruption of permanent canines and premolars in a group of Romanian children in Bucharest. OHMD 2011;10(4):193-198.
  44. Singh S, Sharma A, Sandhu N, Mehta K. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in school going children of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian J Dent Res 2016 May-Jun;27(3):317-322.
  45. Amado JN, Sierraa AM, Gallon A, Alvarez C, Baccettic T. Relationship between personality traits and cooperation of adolescent orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod 2008 Jul;78(4):688-691.
  46. Ansai T, Miyazaki H, Katoh Y, Yamashita Y, Takehara T, Jenny J, Cons NC. Prevalence of malocclusion in high school students in Japan according to the dental aesthetic index. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiolol 1993 Oct;21(5):303-305.
  47. Danaei SM, Amirrad F, Salehi P. Orthodontic treatment needs of 12- 15 year old students in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):326-334.
  48. Onyeaso CO, BeGole EA, Orthodontic treatment need in an accredited orthodontic centre in North America: a pilot study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2006 May;7(2):87-94.
  49. Onyeaso CO, Sanu OO. Perception of personal dental appearance in Nigeria adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2005 Jun;127(6):700-706.
  50. Onyeaso CO. Orthodontic concern of parents compared with orthodontic treatment need assessed by Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) in Ibaden, Nigeria. Odontostomatol Trop 2003 Mar;26(101):13-20.
  51. Naveen Kumar B, Mohapatra A, Ramesh N, Ravishankar TL. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 12-15 years old school children in Davangere, Karnataka, India. Pak Oral Dent J 2010;30(1):181-185.
  52. de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A. The relationship between normative orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003 Dec;31(6):426-436.
  53. de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A, Tsakos G, O'Brien KD. Oral health related quality of life and the IOTN index as predictors of children's perceived needs and acceptance for orthodontic treatment. Br Dent J 2008 Apr;204(7):1-5.
  54. Al-Sarheed M, Bedi R, Hunt NP. Orthodontic treatment need and self perception of 11-16 year old Saudi Arabian children with a sensory impairment attending special schools. J Orthod 2003 Mar;30(1):39-44.
  55. Kerosuo H, Al Enezi S, Kerosuo E, Abdulkarim E. Association between normative and self perceived orthodontic treatment need among Arab high school students. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Mar;125(3):373-378.
  56. Ghijselings I, Brosens V, Williams G, Fieuws S, Clijmans M, Lemiere J. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in 11- to 16-year-old children. Eur J Orthod 2014 Apr;36(2):179-185.
  57. Onyeaso CO, Arowojolu MO. Perceived, desired and normatively determined treatment need among orthodontically untreated Nigerian adolescents. West Afr J Med 2003 Jan- Mar;22(1):5-9.
  58. Jung MH. Quality of life and self-esteem of female orthognathic surgery patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Jun;74(6):1240.e1-1240.e7.
  59. Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
  60. Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
  61. Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
  62. Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
  63. Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
  64. Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
  65. Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
  66. Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
  67. Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
  68. Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
  69. Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
  70. Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
  71. Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
  72. Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
  73. Singh SP. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the unfolding monster? J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006 Jan;21(1 Pt 2):199-201.
  74. Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
  75. Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
  76. Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
  77. Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
  78. Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
  79. Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
  80. Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
  81. Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
  82. Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
  83. Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
  84. Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
  85. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
  86. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
  87. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
  88. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
  89. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
  90. Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
  91. Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
  92. Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
  93. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
  94. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
  95. Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
  96. Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
  97. Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
  98. Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
  99. Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
  100. Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
  101. Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
  102. Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
  103. Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
  104. Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
  105. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  106. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
  107. Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
  108. Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
  109. Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
  110. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
  111. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
  112. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
  113. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
  114. Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
  115. Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
  116. Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
  117. Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
  118. Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
  119. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
  120. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
  121. Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
  122. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
  123. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
  124. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
  125. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
  126. Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
  127. Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
  128. Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
  129. O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
  130. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
  131. Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
  132. Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
  133. Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.