Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 23 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2019 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Antinuclear Antibodies Status and Related Risk Factors in Nonpregnant Adult Indian Women

Barun K Chakrabarty, Prosenjit Ganguli, Sougat Ray, Manu Chopra

Keywords : Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), ELISA, Nonpregnant adult women, Risk factors

Citation Information : Chakrabarty BK, Ganguli P, Ray S, Chopra M. Antinuclear Antibodies Status and Related Risk Factors in Nonpregnant Adult Indian Women. Indian J Med Biochem 2019; 23 (2):250-253.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0097

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-08-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Introduction: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are the most commonly evaluated non specific autoantibodies in clinical practice. Previous studies showed ANAs are frequently detected in healthy individuals and expression of ANAs are more common in women and older age groups. To explain the reason of sex differences differential chromosomal, hormonal and reproductive factors are postulated, but till now the association is not clearly understood. There is paucity of Indian data of ANA status amongst women. In this study we examined the relationship of ANA status with socio demographic and reproductive factors in a representative sample of non pregnant adult Indian women. Aims and Objectives: • Estimation of ANA status prevalence in non pregnant Indian women by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. • Effects of socio demographic and reproductive factors with ANA prevalence. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the zonal level hospital. Non pregnant adult women who had ever menstruated and voluntarily completed the socio demographic and reproductive history questionnaire were included in the study. Serum ANA screening test were performed for the detection of IgG class antibodies to ANA in human serum by ELISA. Results: We analyzed data on socio demographic and reproductive factors in relation to serum ANA status in adult non pregnant females using SPSS statistical software. The values thus obtained statistically similar with those obtained in developed countries. Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of considering sociodemographic and reproductive history in studies of autoimmunity in women in Indian set up.

PDF Share
  1. Feldman CH, Hiraki LT,Liu J,et al. Epidemiology and socio demographics of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis among US adults with Medic aid coverage, 2000-2004. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:753–763.
  2. Satoh M, Chan EK, Ho LA, et al. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of antinuclear antibodies in the United States. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64: 2319–2327.
  3. Arbuckle MR, McClain MT, Rubertone MV, Scofield RH, Dennis GJ, James JA, et al. Development of autoantibodies before the clinical onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:1526–1533.
  4. Yadin O, Sarov B, Naggan L, Slor H, Shoenfeld Y. Natural autoantibodies in the serum of healthy women--a five-year follow-up. Clin Exp Immunol. 1989;75:402–406.
  5. Wijeyesinghe U, Russell AS. Outcome of high titer antinuclear antibody positivity in individuals without connective tissue disease: a 10-year follow- up. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:1399–1402.
  6. Eriksson C, Kokkonen H, Johansson M, et al.Autoantibodies predate the onset of systemic lupus erythematosus in northern Sweden. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:30–35.
  7. Pennell LM, Galligan CL, Fish EN. Sex affects immunity. J Autoimmun. 2012;38:J282–J291.
  8. Minz RW,Kumar Y,Anand S, et al.Antinuclear antibody positive autoimmune disorders in North India: anappraisal. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:2883–2888.
  9. Quintero OL, Amador-Patarroyo MJ, Montoya-Ortiz G, Rojas-Villarraga A, Anaya JM. Autoimmune disease and gender: plausible mechanisms for the female predominance of autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2012; 38:J109–J119.
  10. Emlen W; O’Neill L Clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies: comparison of detection with immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40(9):1612–1618.
  11. Hayashi N, Koshiba M, Nishimura K, et al. Prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies in general population :estimates from annual physical examinations of resident so fasmalltownovera5-yearperiod. Mod Rheumatol. 2008;18: 153–160.
  12. Nilsson BO, Skogh T, Ernerudh J, Johansson B, Lofgren S, Wikby A, et al. Antinuclear antibodies in the oldest-old women and men. J Autoimmun. 2006;27:281–288.
  13. Cacciapaglia F, Arcarese L,Rigon A, et al. Antinuclear antibodies prevalence in Filipinos migrated to Italy. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2008;12:267–270.
  14. Ouchi N, Parker JL, Lugus JJ, Walsh K. Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:85–97.
  15. Cleary MP, Grossmann ME. Mini review: Obesity and breast cancer: the estrogen connection. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2537–2542.
  16. Gonzalez DA, De Leon AC, Rodriguez Perez MC, Coello SD, Gonzalez Hernandez A, Fuentes RC, et al. Inverse association between obesity and antinuclear antibodies in women. J Rheumatol. 2008; 35:2449–2451.
  17. Khashan AS, Kenny LC, Laursen TM, Mahmood U, Mortensen PB, Henriksen TB, et al. Pregnancy and the risk of autoimmune disease. PLoS One. 2011; 6.
  18. Jorgensen KT, Pedersen BV, Nielsen NM, Jacobsen S, Frisch M. Childbirths and risk of female predominant and other autoimmune diseases in a population-based Danish cohort. J Autoimmun. 2012; 38:J8.
  19. Hughes GC. Progesterone and autoimmune disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:A502–1.
  20. Shelly S, Boaz M, Orbach H. Prolactin and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:A465–A467.
  21. Carp HJ, Selmi C, Shoenfeld Y. The autoimmune bases of infertility and pregnancy loss. J Autoimmun. 2012;38:J266–J267.
  22. Clancy KB, Klein LD, Ziomkiewicz A, Nenko I, Jasienska G, Bribiescas RG. Relationships between biomarkers of inflammation, ovarian steroids, and age at menarche in a rural polish sample. Am J Hum Biol. 2013;25:389.
  23. Eriksson C, Kokkonen H, Johansson M, Hallmans G, Wadell G, Rantapaa-Dahlqvist S. Autoantibodies predate the onset of systemic lupus erythematosus in northern Sweden. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011; 13:R30.
  24. Olsen NJ, Li QZ, Quan J, Wang L, Mutwally A, Karp DR. Autoantibody profiling to follow evolution of lupus syndromes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R174.
  25. Mariz HA, Sato EI, Barbosa SH, Rodrigues SH, Dellavance A, Andrade LE. Pattern on the antinuclear antibody-HEp-2 test is a critical parameter for discriminating antinuclear antibody-positive healthy individuals and patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:191–200.
  26. Gonz´alez C; Martin T; Arroyo T; Garc´ia-Isidoro M; Navajo JA; Gonz´alez-Buitrago JM. Comparison and variation of different methodologies for the detection of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens (ANA). J Clin Lab Anal 1997;11(6):388–392.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.