Citation Information :
Kadam PS, Bavikar JS, Shendye RJ, Aghade S. Cystatin C in Patients of Metabolic Syndrome and its Correlation with the Individual Components of Metabolic Syndrome. Indian J Med Biochem 2019; 23 (2):293-297.
Aim: To determine serum cystatin C (CysC) levels in metabolic syndrome (MetS )patients and correlation of cystatin C with individual components of MetS.
Materials methods: A cross-sectional study included 100 cases of MetS and 50 controls. One hundred cases were further divided into 3 groups depending upon the number of components of MetS. Anthropometric parameters like height, weight, BMI (body mass index), Waist circumference were measured. Fasting plasma glucose,serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum HDL (high density lipoprotein), LDL(low density lipoprotein), VLDL (very low density lipoprotein), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure(DBP), creatinine, urea, eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) and CysC were measured in each individual. Correlation of CysC with each component of Mets was studied.
Results: CysC was significantly increased in MetS patients than in controls. Level of serum CysC was increased with an increase in components of MetS. CysC was positively correlated with waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, SBP, and DBP and negatively correlated with HDL. There was no significant difference in urea, creatinine, and eGFR in studied groups.
Conclusion: CysC is significantly correlated with individual components of MetS.CysC may be used as an early marker of renal dysfunction in MetS patients.
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Stephen R, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, et al. Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement Executive Summary. Circulation. 2005; 112:285-290.
Rubenstein AH. Obesity: a modern epidemic. Transactions of the American clinical and climatologically association. 2005;116:103-113.
Alberti G, Zimmet P, Shaw J, Grundy S M. The IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome. Publication. Ed. Brussels, Belgium. International Diabetes Federation. 2006;1-23.
Beigh SH, Jain S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and gender differences. Bioinformation. 2012;8(13):613-616.
Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Longo DL, Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrisons principle of internal medicine.17th edition; 2008:1509-1513.
Viswanathan V, Snehalatha C, Nair MB. A Ramachandran. Comparative Assessment of Cystatin C and Creatinine for Determining Renal Function. Indian J Nephrol. 2005;15: 91-94.
Filler G, Bokenkamp A, Hofmann W, Bricon TL, Bru CM, Grubb A. Cystatin C as a Marker of GFR - History, Indications, and Future Research. Clinical Biochemistry. 2005;38(1):1-8.
Vivien SS, Delanaye P, Pieroni L, Mariat C, Froissart M, Cristol JP. Cystatin C: Current Position and Future Prospects. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46(12):1664-1686.
Liua P, Suia S, Xua D, Xinga X, Liub C. Clinical analysis of the relationship between cystatin C and metabolic syndrome in the elderly. Rev Port Cardiol. 2014;33(7-8):411-416.
Magnusson M, Hedblad B, Engstrom G, Persson M, Nilsson P, Melander O. High levels of cystatin C predict the metabolic syndrome: the prospective Malmo Diet and Cancer Study. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2013;274:192-199.
Demircan N, Gurel A, Armutotalcholesterolu F, Unalacak M, Aktunac E, Afmaca H. The evaluation of serum cystatin C, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant status in patients with metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:97-101.
Kedam DP, Polur H, Bandela PV. Cystatin-C as a Biomarker in Predicting Early Renal Impairment in Normo-Albuminuric Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research. 2015; 7(11):913-916.
Amirrasoul H, Asefy Z. Faranakkazerouni, Mohammad Taghikhani. Study of serum cystatin C as a reliable marker for metabolic syndrome. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders. 2011;10:1- 4.
Tremblay AJ, Morrissette H, Gagné JM, Bergeron J, Gagné C, Couture P, “Validation of the Friedewald formula for the determination of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with β-quantification in a large population,” Clinical Biochemistry, 2004;37(9):785-790.
Naour N, Soraya Fellahi S, Renucci J F, Poitou C, Rouault C, Basdevant A, Dutour A, Alessi M C, Bastard J P, Clement K, Millo M G. Potential Contribution of Adipose Tissue to Elevated Serum Cystatin C in Human Obesity. Obesity. 2009; 17: 2121–2126.
Retnakaran R, Connelly PW, Harris SB, et al. Cystatin C is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Aboriginal youth. PediatrNephrol. 2007; 22: 1007-1113.
Vigil L, Lopez M, Condes E, Varela M, Lorence D, Carretero RG, Ruiz J. Cystatin C is associated with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors in a hypertensive population. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. 2009; 3(3): 201–209.
Deepa K, Rahul M. H, Shubha Jayaram, MeeraS, Sudhir. Cystatin C as a marker of Cardio metabolic disorder in obese South Indian individuals. IOSR Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry (IOSR-JBB).2015;1(6): 24-28.
Richard P. Donahue RP, Stranges S, Rejman K, Rafalson LB, Dmochowski J, Trevisan M. Elevated Cystatin C Concentration and Progression to Pre-Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30: 1724–1729.
Nishiyama K, Konishi A, Nishio C, Yoshida AK, Hatanaka H, Kojima M, et al. Expression of cystatin C prevents oxidative stress-induced death in PC12 cells. Brain Res Bull. 2005; 67: 94–99.
Kim SY, Song SH, Jeon YK, Kim JR, Bae JH, Kim SS, et al. Association of Serum Cystatin C with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Related Components in Korean Adults Korean Diabetes. 2008; J 32: 409-417.
Peralta CA, Whooley MA, Ix JH, et al. Kidney function and systolic blood pressure new insights from cystatin C: data from the Heart and Soul Study. Am J Hypertens. 2006;19:939-946.
Kestenbaum B, Rudser KD, de Boer IH, et al. Differences in kidney function and incident hypertension: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:501-508.
Surendar J, Indulekha K, Aravindhan V, Anbazaghan G, Vishwanathan M. Association of Cystatin-C with Metabolic Syndrome in Normal Glucose-Tolerant Subjects (CURES-97). Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. 2010;12(11):907-912.
Chagnac A, Weinstein T, Korzets A, Ramadan E, Hirsch J, Gafter U. Glomerular hemodynamics in severe obesity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;278:817-822.
Hodgkins KS, Schnaper HW. Tubulointerstitial injury and the progression of chronic kidney disease.PediatrNephrol. 2012; 27:901–909.
DeFronzo RA, Cooke CR, Andres R, et al: The effect of insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in man. J Clin Invest. 1975;55:845-855.
Rowe JW, Young JB, Minaker KL, et al. Effect of insulin and glucose infusions on sympathetic nervous system activity in normal man. Diabetes. 1981;30:219-225.
Clausen T, Everts ME. Regulation of the Na, K-pump in skeletal muscle. Kidney Int.1989;35:1-13.
Dengel DR, Goldberg AP, Mayuga RS, Kairis GM, Weir MR. Insulin resistance, elevated glomerular filtration fraction, and renal injury. Hypertension.1996;28:127-132.
Chait A, Heinecke JW. Lipoprotein modification: cellular mechanisms. CurrOpinLipidol. 1994;5(5):365-370.
Trevisan R, Dodesini AR, and Lepore G. Lipids and Renal Disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2006; 17:S145-S147.
Hashemi V, Khodaei M, Asefy Z. Validity of Serum Cystatin C for Predicting Obesity Nephropathy. Interdisciplinary bio central. 2012;4(4):1-4.
Servais A, Giral P, Bernard M, Bruckert E, Deray G, IsnardBagnis C. Is serum cystatin-C a reliable marker for metabolic syndrome? Am J Med. 2008 May;121(5):426-432.