Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 23 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Biochemical Changes in Female Infertility: Highlights on Leptin, Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Resistin

Shantha K Nataraj, Hemalatha, K Girija

Keywords : FSH, Infertility, Leptin, Obesity, Prolactin, Resistin, Testosterone, Visfatin,Adiponectin

Citation Information : Nataraj SK, H, Girija K. Biochemical Changes in Female Infertility: Highlights on Leptin, Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Resistin. Indian J Med Biochem 2019; 23 (3):339-342.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0110

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Introduction: Infertility is one of the major health concerns among women of reproductive age group. Food habits and sedentary life style has lead to obesity among young women. With obesity, the incidence of infertility is on the raise in the last decade. Imbalance of sex hormones like FSH, LH, prolactin, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone contributes to the female infertility. Obesity also plays a significant role on reproductive system contributing to female infertility. The adipokines secreted from adipose tissue also to be evaluated to understand its role on infertility. Adipokines, like adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin secreted from adipocytes, influence the reproductive organs via various mechanisms. So it is essential to evaluate the adipokines and sex hormones for better understanding of infertility and hence help in the treatment of infertility. Aim: To estimate the levels of fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, insulin, insulin resistance, FSH, LH, testosterone, prolactin, leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin among infertile women and compare with fertile women of reproductive age group. Materials and methods: Fifty women with unexplained infertility were included as cases and fifty fertile women in reproductive age were included as controls. Results: BMI, waist/hip ratio, insulin, insulin resistance was significantly high in cases than controls. FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone was high in cases compared to controls. Adiponectin was low in cases than controls, whereas leptin, visfatin and resistin was high in cases than controls. Conclusion: Sex hormones have influence on adipokines indicating role of adipokines in infertility.

PDF Share
  1. Chen X, Jia X, Qiao J, et al. Adipokines in reproductive function: a link between obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome. J Mol Endocrinol 2013;50:R21–R37. DOI: 10.1530/JME-12-0247.
  2. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Anovulation and polycystic ovary, Clinical Gynecology endocrinology and infertility. Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. pp. 465–498.
  3. Pang SC. Use of follicle stimulating hormone for the treatment of female Infertility – current concepts. Women's Health 2005;1(1):87–95. DOI: 10.2217/17455057.1.1.87.
  4. Sasikumar S, Shyam Sundar J, Madhankumar EK, et al. A study on significant biochemical changes in the serum of infertile women. Int J Curr Res Aca Rev 2014;2(2):95–115.
  5. Zarko S, Papic Z. Effect of increased testosterone level on women's fertility. Diabetologia Croatica 2004; 33.
  6. Svendsen PF, Christiansen M, Hedley PL, et al. Adipose expression of adipocytokines in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril July 2012;98(1):235–241. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.03.056.
  7. Mitchell M, Armstrong DT, Robker RL, et al. Adipokines: Implications for female fertility and obesity. Reproduction 2005;130:583–597. DOI: 10.1530/rep.1.00521.
  8. Budak E, Fernández Sánchez M, Bellver J, et al. Interaction of hormones, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, and pyy3 with reproductive system. Fertil Steril June 2006;85(6):1563–1580. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.09.065.
  9. Spritzer PM, Lecke SB, Satler F, et al. Adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokines, and low grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Reprod Fertil Dev, 1470–1626. DOI: 10.1530/REP-14-0435.
  10. Panidids D, Farmakiotis D, Rousso D, et al. Plasmas vistatin levels in normal weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Intern Med 2008;19:406–412. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejim.2007.05.014.
  11. Zeger-Hochschild F, Adamson GD, de Mouzon J, et al. The International committee for monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the world health organization (WHO). Revised glossary on ART Terminology 2009. Hum Reprod 2009;24(11):2683–2687. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.09.009.
  12. Yin J, Li M, Wang Y, et al. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2013;5:71. DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-5-71.
  13. Mahmoud MI, Habeeb F, Kasim K, et al. Reproductive and biochemical changes in obese and non obese polycystic ovary syndrome women. Alexandria Med J 2015;51:5–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2014.03.002.
  14. Sato MA, Okamoto M, Endo M, et al. Hypoadiponectinemia in lean lactating Women: Prolactin inhibits. Adiponectin secretion from human Adipocytes. Endocr J 2006;53f(4):555–562. DOI: 10.1507/endocrj.K06-026.
  15. Ramanand SJ, Jaiprakash B, Ghongane BB, et al. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics. Biochemical parameters in Indian women with Polycystic ovary syndrome. Indian J Endocr Metab 2014;18(2):221–225. DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210. 129116.
  16. Zeynep OD, Berna D. Impact of obesity on infertility in women. J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2015;16:111–117. DOI: 10.5152/jtgga.2015.15232.
  17. Kesmodel US. Fertility and Obesity. Maternal Obesity and Pregnancy 2012; 9–14.
  18. Legro RS, Finegood D, Dunaif A, et al. A fasting glucose to insulin ration is a useful measure of insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83: 2694–2698. DOI: 10.1210/jc.83.8.2694.
  19. Lecke SB, Mattei F, Morsch DM, et al. Abdominal subcutaneous fat gene expression and circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2011;95(6):2044–2049. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.02.041.
  20. Lappas M, Yee K, Permezel M, et al. Release and regulation of Leptin, resistin and adiponectin from human placenta, fetal membranes and maternal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from normal and gestational diabetes mellitus complicated Pregnancies. J Endocrin 2005;186:457–465. DOI: 10.1677/joe.1.06227.
  21. Margetic S, Gazzola L, Pegg GG, et al. Leptin-a review of its peripheral actions and Interactions. Int J Obes 2002;26:1407–1433. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802142.
  22. Miller KK, Parulekar MS, Schoenfeld E, et al. Decreased Leptin level in normal Weight with hypothalamic Amenorrhea: The effects of body composition and nutritional intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2309–2318. DOI: 10.1210/jcem.83.7.4975.
  23. Bouvattier C, Lahiou N, Roger M, et al. Hypoleptinemia is associated with impaired gonadotrophin response to GnRH during late puberty in obese girls, not boys. Eur J Endocrinol 1998;138:653–658. DOI: 10.1530/eje.0.1380653.
  24. Farshchian F, Tehrani FR, Amirrasouli H, et al. Visfatin and Resistin serum levels in normal weight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Endocrinol Metab 2014;12(3):e15503. DOI: 10.5812/ijem.15503.
  25. Platti E, Kouskouni E, Malamitsi-Puchner A, et al. Vistatin and leptin levels in women with polycystic ovaries undergoing ovarian simulation. Fertil Steril Sep 2010;94(4):1451–1456. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.04.055.
  26. Capos DB, Palin MF, Bordignon V, et al. The beneficial adipokines in reproduction and fertility. Int J Obes 2008;32:223–231. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803719.
  27. Donato J Jr, Cravo RM, Frazão R, et al. Leptin's effect on puberty in mice is relayed by the ventral premammillary nucleus and does not require signaling in Kiss1 neurons. J Clin Invest 2011;121:355–368. DOI: 10.1172/JCI45106.
  28. Scherer PE, Williams S, Fogliano M, et al. A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes. J Bio Chem 1995;270:26746–26749. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.270.45.26746.
  29. Michalakis KG, Segars JH. The role of adiponectin in reproduction: from polycystic ovary syndrome to assisted reproduction. Fertil Steril 2010;94:1949–1957. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.05.010.
  30. Lagaly DV, Aad PY, Grado-Ahuir JA, et al. Role of adiponectin in regulating ovarian theca and granulosa cell function. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2008;284:38–45. DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2008.01.007.
  31. Lecke SB, Morsch DM, Spritzer PM, et al. Leptin and adiponectin in the female life course. Braz J Med Biol Res May 2011;44(5):381–387. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2011000500001.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.