Citation Information :
Basha SY, Kasi HK. Role of Glycated Hemoglobin and Sialic Acid in Nondiabetics having a Myocardial Infarction: A Case-control Study in the People from North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Med Biochem 2019; 23 (3):350-353.
Aim: The study aims at evaluating the glycated hemoglobin and serum sialic acid as risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction, who are nondiabetic.
Materials and methods: This is a case-control study performed on the population of north coastal Andhra Pradesh. All the subjects got admitted to King George Hospital/Andhra Medical College which is a major referral hospital to the people of north coastal Andhra Pradesh. One hundred subjects participated in the study, of which 50 had myocardial infarction and are nondiabetic, and the rest are controls who never had myocardial infarction. Glycated hemoglobin and serum sialic acid levels were estimated, and results analyzed for the association. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software.
Results: Glycated hemoglobin and serum sialic acid levels are significantly increased in patients with myocardial infarction who are nondiabetic.
Conclusion: Persistent hyperglycemia levels not surmounting to diabetes can be a significant risk factor in the development of myocardial infarction.
Clinical significance: This study helps us to identify the role of persistent hyperglycemia not mounting to diabetes as a significant cardiovascular risk factor.
Beckman JA, Creager MA, Libby P. Diabetes and atherosclerosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. JAMA 2002;287(19):2570–2581. DOI: 10.1001/jama.287.19.2570.
Timmer JR, Hoekstra M, Nijsten MWN, et al. Prognostic value of admission glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose in nondiabetic patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 2011;124(6):704–711. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.985911.
van der Horst IC, Nijsten MW, Vogelzang M, et al. Persistent hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of outcome in acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2007;6:2. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-6-2.
Myint PK, Sinha S, Wareham NJ, et al. Glycated hemoglobin and risk of stroke in people without known diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study: a threshold relationship? Stroke 2007;38(2):271–275. DOI: 10.1161/01.STR.0000254549.75763.5f.
Khaw KT, Wareham N, Luben R, et al. Glycated haemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in men in Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk). BMJ 2001;322(7277):15–18. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.322.7277.15.
Oswald GA, Smith CC, Betteridge DJ, et al. Determinants and importance of stress hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic patients with myocardial infarction. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;293(6552):917–922. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.293.6552.917.
Stakos DA, Schuster DP, Sparks EA, et al. Association between glycosylated hemoglobin, left ventricular mass and aortic function in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance. Eur J Endocrinol 2007;157(1):63–68. DOI: 10.1530/EJE-07-0121.
Dilley J, Ganesan A, Deepa R, et al. Association of A1C with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 2007;30(6):1527–1532. DOI: 10.2337/dc06-2414.
Gustavsson C, Agardh C. Inflammatory activity increases with haemoglobin A1c in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Scand Cardiovasc J 2009;43(6):380–385. DOI: 10.1080/14017430902822999.
Gustavsson C, Agardh C. Markers of inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease are also associated with glycosylated haemoglobin A1c within the normal range. Eur Heart J 2004;25(23):2120–2124. DOI: 10.1016/j.ehj.2004.09.008.
Jørgensen L, Jenssen T, Joakimsen O, et al. Glycated hemoglobin level is strongly related to the prevalence of carotid artery plaques with high echogenicity in nondiabetic individuals: the Tromsø study. Circulation 2004;110(4):466–470. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000136809.55141.3B.
Råstam L, Lindberg G, Folsom AR, et al. Association between serum sialic acid concentration and carotid atherosclerosis measured by B-mode ultrasound. The ARIC investigators. Atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Int J Epidemiol 1996;25(5):953–958. DOI: 10.1093/ije/25.5.953.
Lindberg G, Eklund GA, Gullberg B, et al. Serum sialic acid concentration and cardiovascular mortality. BMJ 1991;302(6769): 143–146. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.302.6769.143.
Wakabayashi I, Sakamoto K, Yoshimoto S, et al. Relation of serum sialic acid to lipid concentrations. BMJ 1992;305(6853):562–563. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.305.6853.562.
Wakabayashi I, Sakamoto K, Yoshimoto S, et al. Serum sialic acid concentration and atherosclerotic risk factors. J Atheroscler Thromb 1994;1(2):113–117. DOI: 10.5551/jat1994.1.113.
Wakabayashi I, Sakamoto K, Yoshimoto S, et al. Serum lipid profile in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis 2002;19(1):118–122.
Gokmen SS, Kilicli G, Ozcelik F, et al. Association between serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid concentration and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. J Lab Clin Med 2002;140(2):110–118. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-2143(02)00025-2.