Aim: To review the updated literature to find out the biochemical and hematological changes that occur in the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection that is causing the ongoing global pandemic.
Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, and within a few months, by March 2019, it had taken the shape of a pandemic. Six months down the road, knowledge about the pathogenesis of this infection has grown rapidly. Although it is predominantly a respiratory infection, COVID-19 is now known to affect almost every organ of the body. The unpredictable clinical course has been attributed to multiple biochemical and hematological changes that are caused by the COVID-19 virus.
Review results: An in-depth analysis of recently published data has highlighted that various biochemical and hematological alterations can be attributed to COVID-19 infection. These include hypoalbuminemia, reduced number of lymphocytes, elevated levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), homocysteine, and biomarkers such as ferritin. Other parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, Procalcitonin (PCT), D-Dimer, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and angiotensin II correlate with the extent of viral load and predicted the course of the disease.
Conclusion: Knowledge about the alteration biochemical and hematological markers in the COVID-19 infection is helpful in the estimation of the extent of viral load and in the prediction of the clinical course of the infection.
Clinical significance: Monitoring the biochemical and hematological biomarkers, especially, CRP, ferritin, LDH, D-Dimer, and NLR, is useful for triaging patients infected with COVID-19 early in the course of disease and thus may prevent disease progression by the institution of early interventions.
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