Citation Information :
Rani B, Suleman M, Sarada C, Manolla ML, Kinnera T, Maccha L, Gayatri N, Rani S, Kumar GV. Clinical Significance of Cystatin C, Creatinine, and Blood Urea in Lupus Nephritis Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A South Indian Case–Control Study. Indian J Med Biochem 2021; 25 (1):9-13.
Lupus nephritis (LN) develops as a result of immunological abnormalities. The pathogenesis of LN is a complex process, involving the deposition of autoantibodies in the glomerulus. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best overall measure of kidney function, enabling a statement of the complex functions of the kidney in a single numeric expression. The endogenous marker of GFR commonly employed is creatinine, but it does not complete the requirements of an ideal marker because apart from being subjected to tubular secretion it is also influenced by the muscle mass and gender of the patient. Cystatin C is a protein produced by all nucleated cells in the body, freely filtered by glomerulus; neither returned to the bloodstream nor secreted by the renal tubules and also is not influenced by gender or muscle mass. The above features make it a better marker of renal function than creatinine. The medical therapy for LN depends on the severity of the disease. Finding reliable biomarkers for LN will help to evaluate disease activity, identify patients at risk for kidney damage, and facilitate early diagnosis and intervention to improve favorable outcomes.
Neidhart M, Pataki F, Michel BA, et al. CD45 isoforms expression on CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood T-lymphocytes is related to auto-immune processes and hematological manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1996;126(45):1922–1925.
Oates JC, Gilkeson GS. Mediators of injury in lupus nephritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2002;14(5):498–503. DOI: 10.1097/00002281-200209000-00003.
Stevens LA, Levey AS. Measured GFR as a confirmatory test for estimated GFR. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;20(11):2305–2313. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2009020171.
Noble J, Jouve T, Malvezzi P, et al. Renal complications of liver diseases. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018;12(11):1135–1142. DOI: 10.1080/17474124.2018.1530984.
Chang MY, Park Y, Ha JW, et al. Paraspinal lean muscle mass measurement using spine MRI as a predictor of adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion: a propensity score-matched case-control analysis. JR Am J Roentgenol 2019;12:1–8. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.18.20441.
Pillemer SR, Fowler SE, Tilley BC, et al. Meaningful improvement criteria sets in a rheumatoid arthritis clinical trial. MIRA trial group. Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40(3):419–425. DOI: 10.1002/art.1780400305.
Mishra VV, Goyal PA, Priyankur R, et al. Evaluation of spot urinary albumin-creatinine ratio as screening tool in prediction of pre-eclampsia in early pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol India 2017;67(6):405–408. DOI: 10.1007/s13224-016-0950-7.
Jasin HE. Autoantibody specificities of immune complexes sequestered in articular cartilage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1985;28(3):241–248. DOI: 10.1002/art.1780280302.
Yao Y, Wang SX, Zhang YK, et al. Acquired Fanconi syndrome with proximal tubular cytoplasmic fibrillary inclusions of λ light chain restriction. Intern Med 2014;53(2):121–124. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.53.0836.
Raimbourg Q, Daugas É. Lupus nephritis. Nephrol Ther 2019;15(3):174–189. DOI: 10.1016/j.nephro.2018.11.003.
Farnoodian M, Sorenson CM, Sheibani N. PEDF expression affects the oxidative and inflammatory state of choroidal endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2018;314(4):C456–C472. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00259.2017.
Li R, Dai J, Kang H. The construction of a panel of serum amino acids for the identification of early chronic kidney disease patients. Clin Lab Anal 2018;32(3):e22282. DOI: 10.1002/jcla.22282.
Martinez-Martinez MU, Sturbaum AK, Alcocer-Varela J, et al. Factors associated with mortality and infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Rheumatol 2014;41(8):1656–1661. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.130927.
Roelofsen-de Beer RJAC, van Zelst BD, Vroling AB, et al. Ramakers when results matter: reliable creatinine concentrations in hyperbilirubinemia patients. C Clin Chem Lab Med 2019;57(5):659–667. DOI: 10.1515/cclm-2018-0959.