Aim: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) performs important functions in the body. It has the potential to act as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for various diseases. Background: The role of NGAL has been well explored in acute and chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). It is considered a maker for acute kidney injury (AKI). Its role in other diseases has also been increasingly reported. Results: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin takes part in the pathogenesis of several diseases, besides renal diseases, like cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory disorders, cancer, diabetes, etc. by a variety of mechanisms. Its levels have been correlated with the severity in most of the diseases. Conclusion: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin can act as a biomarker in different diseases though, its potential is yet to be explored to the maximum. Clinical significance: Estimating the levels of NGAL in body fluids will help in making an early diagnosis, assessing the severity of the disease, establishing a prognosis, and improving the overall management of different diseases.
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