Coronavirus disease 2019 abbreviated as COVID-19 has emerged out to be the greatest public health problem in the world. Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by a novel virus belonging to the coronavirus family, which causes respiratory disease. Coronavirus disease 2019 is a highly contagious disease with person-to-person transmission, and now affecting the whole world through community transmission. The disease has spread throughout the world with varied mortality rates in different countries. The disease has higher mortality rates among people with extremes of age and the presence of comorbidities. The present review attempts to provide a snapshot of the various immunological responses against this disease sometimes with disastrous consequences such as the cytokine storm.
Xuetao C. COVID-19: immunopathology and its implications for therapy. Nat Rev Immunol 2020;20(5):1–2. DOI: 10.1038/s41577-020-0308-3.
Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20(4):425–434. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30086-4.
Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak—an update on the status. Mil Med Res 2020;7(1):11. DOI: 10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0PMID: 32169119; PMCID: PMC7068984.
Tay MZ, Poh CM, Rénia L, et al. The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nat Rev Immunol 2020;20(6):363–374. DOI: 10.1038/s41577-020-0311-8.
Doan T, Melvold R, Viselli S, et al. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Immunology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2013.
Felsenstein S, Herbert JA, McNamara PS, et al. COVID-19: immunology and treatment options. Clin Immunol 2020;215:108448. DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2020.108448Epub 2020 Apr 27. PMID: 32353634; PMCID: PMC7185015.
Channappanavar R, Fehr AR, Vijay R, et al. Dysregulated type I interferon and inflammatory monocyte-macrophage responses cause lethal pneumonia in SARS-CoV-infected mice. Cell Host Microbe 2016;19(2):181–193. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.01.007PMID: 26867177; PMCID: PMC4752723.
Jose RJ, Manuel A. COVID-19 cytokine storm: the interplay between inflammation and coagulation. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8(6):e46–e47. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30216-2Epub 2020 Apr 27. PMID: 32353251; PMCID: PMC7185942.