Thyroid Dysfunction and Its Influence in Growth Velocity in Children with Down Syndrome: A Retrospective Study
Vidhya Vishwanathan, Subramanian Sethuraman, Shanthi Balaji, VS Kalai Selvi, AJ Manjula Devi
Down syndrome, Endocrinology, Growth velocity, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid disorder
Citation Information :
Vishwanathan V, Sethuraman S, Balaji S, Selvi VK, Devi AM. Thyroid Dysfunction and Its Influence in Growth Velocity in Children with Down Syndrome: A Retrospective Study. Indian J Med Biochem 2018; 22 (1):6-9.
Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the common chromosomal anomaly which has various endocrinological abnormalities, of which thyroid dysfunction is very common. When Down syndrome and thyroid dysfunction are present together, it leads to amplification of the clinical problem.
Aims and objectives: With this background, it was aimed to study the incidence of thyroid dysfunction in Down syndrome in pediatric (<12 years) age group and measure the growth velocity before and after initiation of treatment.
Materials and methods: It is a retrospective analysis, which includes 50 children of Indian origin with Down syndrome between the age group of 1 and 12 years from neurodevelopmental clinic (multicentric) who met the phenotypic criteria for establishing the diagnosis of Down syndrome. The thyroid reports and ultrasound reports of thyroid gland for children with hypothyroidism were extrapolated and analyzed. Birth history, age of diagnosis of thyroid disorder, initiation of treatment, normalization of thyroid function, and anthropometric measurements before and 1 year after initiation of treatment were noted.
Results: In this study, thyroid disorder (hypothyroidism) was found in 12 (24%) children, of which 7 (14%) were diagnosed at the age group of 0 to 1 year and 5 (10%) were diagnosed at the age of 1 to 12 years. The mean height in percentile was 9.92 ± 5.63 before and 43.75 ± 12.68 after supplementation of these children with L-thyroxine. None of the children had hyperthyroidism (p = 0.0001).
Conclusion: As mental and physical retardation are common denominators in both Down syndrome and hypothyroidism, coexistence of both the conditions would lead to further developmental delay in terms of mental as well as physical health. Annual screening of thyroid function should be employed in these children to diagnose the problem at the earliest and initiate treatment, thereby improving the quality of life.
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