Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry

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VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2020 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Role of Vitamin D in COVID-19

Amit Samadhiya, Rajeev Goyal, Aditi Singh, Santosh K Gupta

Keywords : ARDS, ACE-II, COVID-19, Cytokine storm, SARSCov-2, Vitamin D

Citation Information : Samadhiya A, Goyal R, Singh A, Gupta SK. Role of Vitamin D in COVID-19. Indian J Med Biochem 2020; 24 (3):130-133.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0150

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: To review the role of vitamin D in COVID-19. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a tremendous social and economic impact worldwide, and rapid outspreading of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still being seen in India. Currently, there are two explanations available for the fatal ARDS in COVID-19 cases. Cytokine storm is characterized by unregulated release of various proinflammatory cytokines, i.e., TNF-α, INF-γ, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL12, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10, after interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host immune cells. On the other hand, bradykinin storm is happening due to downregulation of ACE in the lung tissue. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D is proved through various studies. There is no individual therapy and vaccination for the SARS-Cov-2; thus, repurposing of available medicines is crucial now. Antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-boosting effects of vitamin D has proven in many studies. These effects are very relevant for its putative beneficial effect in SARS-CoV-2. Review result: Vitamin D has already been used as a repurposed drug in H5N1 pneumonia. Immunomodulatory and antibacterial role of vitamin D is well established. There are studies suggesting toward the cytokine storm as a main culprit behind deadly ARDS in COVID-19. Vitamin D was found as an anti-inflammatory and lung protective substance. Vitamin D was also found protective against bacterial LPS-induced injury by increasing expression of ACE-II and producing antibacterial protein cathelicidin. Conclusion: Before COVID-19 pandemic, we realized the silent pandemic of vitamin D deficiency. The immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial role of vitamin D has been shown in many studies. There are studies which have demonstrated the inverse relationship between vitamin D level and susceptibility to COVID-19. Vitamin-D also plays a crucial role in limiting the fibrosis in the damaged pulmonary tissue and also responsible for deciding overall morbidity of the patient. Thus, it is imperative to think about the potential of vitamin D as a repurposed drug for COVID-19 cases.


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