Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry

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VOLUME 25 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2021 ) > List of Articles


Breakthrough Infections and Omicron Variant: Dealing with the Dilemma

Sarika Jain Agrawal, Monil Singhai

Citation Information : Agrawal SJ, Singhai M. Breakthrough Infections and Omicron Variant: Dealing with the Dilemma. Indian J Med Biochem 2021; 25 (3).

DOI: 10.5005/ijmb-25-3-iv

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 11-03-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


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  1. Cao, Y., Wang, J., Jian, F. et al. Omicron escapes the majority of existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Nature (2021).
  2. Zepeda-Cervantes J, Martínez-Flores D, Ramírez-Jarquín JO, Tecalco-Cruz ÁC, Alavez-Pérez NS, Vaca L, Sarmiento-Silva RE. Implications of the Immune Polymorphisms of the Host and the Genetic Variability of SARS-CoV-2 in the Development of COVID-19. Viruses. 2022 Jan 6;14(1):94. doi: 10.3390/v14010094. PMCID: PMC8778858.
  3. Harvey, W. T. et al. SARS-CoV-2 variants, spike mutations and immune escape. Nat Rev Microbiol 19, 409–424, doi:10.1038/s41579-021-00573-0(2021).
  4. Pulliam JRC, van Schalkwyk C, Govender N et al. Increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection associated with emergence of the omicron variant in South Africa. medRxiv. 2021; (published online Dec 2.) (preprint).
  5. Cele, S. et al. SARS-CoV-2 Omicron has extensive but incomplete escape of Pfizer BNT162b2 elicited neutralization and requires ACE2 for infection. medRxiv, 2021.2012.2008.21267417, doi:10.1101/2021.12.08.21267417 (2021).
  6. Shirley Collie et al. Effectiveness of BNT162b2 Vaccine against Omicron Variant in South Africa. N Engl J Med December 29, 2021. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2119270.
  7. Constanze Kuhlmann, Carla Konstanze Mayer, Mathilda Claassen, Tongai Maponga, Wendy A Burgers, Roanne Keeton, Catherine Riou, Andrew D Sutherland, Tasnim Suliman, Megan L Shaw, Wolfgang Preiser. Breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2 omicron despite mRNA vaccine booster dose. The Lancet Published online January 18, 2022
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