Hypovitaminosis D in pregnancy has been reported to cause various maternal effects, i.e., hypocalcemia, subclinical myopathy, increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), cesarean sections, and fetal effects, i.e., neonatal tetany, hyperbilirubinemia congenital rickets, infantile rickets, etc. Only few Indian studies are available in this regard.
To estimate serum vitamin D levels in pregnant women, cord blood, and study fetomaternal outcomes.
Materials and methods
A prospective observational study was conducted on 54 consecutive pregnant women and their newborn babies. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was estimated in all women at the time of admission in labor ward. They were followed up to delivery and 48 hours postpartum. Vitamin D was also estimated in cord blood collected during delivery. All results were recorded and analyzed statistically.
The mean 25(OH)D level in pregnancy was 6.81 ± 7.38 ng/mL. The mean 25(OH)D level in their babies (cord blood) was 6.34 ± 7.05 ng/mL. There was very strong positive correlation between maternal and fetal serum 25(OH)D levels (p-value 0.001, r-value 0.9). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with obesity, PE, and GDM (p-value 0.001). Neonatal jaundice and tetany were also significantly associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.
Low levels of vitamin D have been observed in pregnant women and their newborn babies. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse fetomaternal outcomes. As there is a strong correlation of maternal and neonatal levels, supplementing vitamin D in a pregnant women might improve these adverse pregnancy outcomes.
How to cite this article
Gupta M, Debnath A, Jain S, Saini V, Ray S. Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):42-48.